Next Article in Journal
Health Professionals’ Knowledge of Probiotics: An International Survey
Next Article in Special Issue
Racialized Structural Vulnerability: Neighborhood Racial Composition, Concentrated Disadvantage, and Fine Particulate Matter in California
Previous Article in Journal
Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment: A Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Agreement between Commonly Used ActiGraph and Omron Accelerometers
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Impact of Social Disparities on Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water Supply in Ugu District Municipality of Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa
Open AccessReview

Social Inequalities in Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution: A Systematic Review in the WHO European Region

1
Staffordshire Business School, Staffordshire University, Stoke on Trent ST4 2DF, UK
2
Department of Social Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health and Nursing Research, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
3
Health Sciences Bremen, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3127; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173127
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 24 August 2019 / Published: 28 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Achieving Environmental Health Equity: Great Expectations)
Ambient air pollution is a long-standing and significant public health issue. The aim of this review is to systematically examine the peer-reviewed evidence on social inequalities and ambient air pollution in the World Health Organization European Region. Articles published between 2010 and 2017 were analyzed in the review. In total 31 articles were included in the review. There is good evidence from ecological studies that higher deprivation indices and low economic position are usually linked with higher levels of pollutants such as particulate matter (particulate matter under 2.5 and 10 microns in diameter, PM2.5, PM10) and oxides of nitrogen (e.g., NO2, and NOx). There is also evidence that ethnic minorities experience a mixed exposure in comparison to the majority population being sometimes higher and sometimes lower depending on the ethnic minority under consideration. The studies using data at the individual level in this review are mainly focused on pregnant women or new mothers, in these studies deprivation and ethnicity are more likely to be linked to higher exposures of poor air quality. Therefore, there is evidence in this review that the burden of higher pollutants falls disproportionally on different social groups.
View Full-Text
Keywords: air quality; inequalities; inequities; equity; distribution; environmental justice; environmental inequalities; Europe; deprivation; economic position; preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) air quality; inequalities; inequities; equity; distribution; environmental justice; environmental inequalities; Europe; deprivation; economic position; preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fairburn, J.; Schüle, S.A.; Dreger, S.; Karla Hilz, L.; Bolte, G. Social Inequalities in Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution: A Systematic Review in the WHO European Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3127.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop