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Open AccessArticle

Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Congenital Heart Defects: A Case-Control Study

1
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi’an 710061, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi’an 710061, China
3
Nutrition and Food Safety Engineering Research Center of Shaanxi Province, Xi’an 710061, China
4
Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710061, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162957
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
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PDF [328 KB, uploaded 20 August 2019]

Abstract

Limited studies investigating the relationships between dietary patterns and congenital heart defects (CHDs) are available. This study aimed to explore the associations between dietary patterns and CHDs risk in Shaanxi, China. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study and included a total of 474 cases and 948 controls. Pregnant women waiting for delivery in the hospital were interviewed to report their diets during pregnancy using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component factor analysis. Mixed logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between dietary patterns and CHDs. Pregnant women in the highest tertile of the prudent pattern had a lower risk of CHDs compared to those in the lowest tertile (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.48–0.89). Pregnant women with high scores on the vegetarian pattern were at an increased risk of CHDs (medium vs. lowest tertile: OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.03–2.17; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.13–2.15; ptrend = 0.015). Pregnant women with high scores on the dairy and egg pattern were at a reduced risk of CHDs (medium vs. lowest tertile: OR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.49–0.90; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.43–0.82; ptrend = 0.001). Maternal diet during pregnancy is an important target for intervention, and it may influence the likelihood of developing CHDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; pregnancy; congenital heart defects; case-control; principal component factor analysis dietary patterns; pregnancy; congenital heart defects; case-control; principal component factor analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, J.; Kang, Y.; Cheng, Y.; Zeng, L.; Yan, H.; Dang, S. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Congenital Heart Defects: A Case-Control Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2957.

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