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Perinatal Distress and Depression in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Australian Women: The Role of Psychosocial and Obstetric Factors

1
Translational Health Research Institute, School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2571, Australia
2
General Practice Unit, Prescot Specialist Medical Centre, Welfare Quarters, Makurdi, Benue State 972261, Nigeria
3
Department of Community Paediatrics, Sydney Local Health District, Croydon Community Health Centre, 24 Liverpool Street, Croydon, NSW 2132, Australia
4
School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
5
Primary & Community Health, Child and Family, South Western Sydney Local Health District, Narellan CHC, NSW 2567, Australia
6
Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, 1 Campbell Street, Liverpool, NSW 2170, Australia
7
School of Women’s and Children’s Health, The University of New South Wales, Kensington, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
8
Menzies Centre for Health Policy, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Public Health, Sydney University, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
9
Sydney Institute for Women, Children and their Families, Sydney Local Health District, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162945 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
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Abstract

Perinatal distress and depression can have significant impacts on both the mother and baby. The present study investigated psychosocial and obstetric factors associated with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) Australian women in Sydney, New South Wales. The study used retrospectively linked maternal and child health data from two Local Health Districts in Australia (N = 25,407). Perinatal distress was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, scores of 10–12) and depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of 13 or more. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial and obstetric factors with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among CALD Australian women was 10.1% for antenatal distress; 7.3% for antenatal depressive symptoms; 6.2% for postnatal distress and 3.7% for postnatal depressive symptoms. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were associated with a lack of partner support, intimate partner violence, maternal history of childhood abuse and being known to child protection services. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with postnatal distress and depressive symptoms. Higher socioeconomic status had a protective effect on antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms. Our study suggests that current perinatal mental health screening and referral for clinical assessment is essential, and also supports a re-examination of perinatal mental health policy to ensure access to culturally responsive mental health care that meets patients’ needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Australia; culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD); depression; distress; perinatal Australia; culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD); depression; distress; perinatal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ogbo, F.A.; Kingsley Ezeh, O.; Dhami, M.V.; Naz, S.; Khanlari, S.; McKenzie, A.; Agho, K.; Page, A.; Ussher, J.; Perz, J.; Eastwood, J. Perinatal Distress and Depression in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Australian Women: The Role of Psychosocial and Obstetric Factors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2945.

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