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Open AccessReview

How Does the Built Environment in Compact Metropolitan Cities Affect Health? A Systematic Review of Korean Studies

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2
Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162921
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

This systematic review aimed to examine the associations between health-related outcomes and the built environment (BE) characteristics of compact metropolitan cities in Korea using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) framework. Searching the three Korean academic databases and PubMed, two independent reviewers identified 27 empirical articles published between 2011 and 2016. Data extracted for review included the study characteristics, the variables and measurement methods related to the BE and health-related outcomes, and the findings on the associations between the BE characteristics and health-related outcomes. Vote counting was used to assess the consistency of associations and the direction of associations between the BE characteristics and health-related outcomes. All of the reviewed studies used cross-sectional designs. The objective BE qualities were commonly examined. The BE characteristics associated with health-related outcomes in the reviewed articles included land use, street environment, transportation infrastructure, green and open spaces, and neighborhood facilities. Street environment, transportation infrastructure, and green and open spaces had consistent positive associations with physical health. Mixed land use and neighborhood facilities, however, had inconsistent associations with physical health. Generally, insufficient findings were reported in the association between the BE characteristics and mental and social health. The accessibility of the BE in a compact urban environment was the prominent attribute related to health promotion, health challenges, and health equity. An international comparative analysis of compact cities with different urban contexts and scale is required. Interdisciplinary urban health strategies are recommended based on the associations between the BE characteristics and health-related outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: built environment; health promotion; compact city; metropolitan scale; systematic review; Korea built environment; health promotion; compact city; metropolitan scale; systematic review; Korea
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Kim, D.H.; Yoo, S. How Does the Built Environment in Compact Metropolitan Cities Affect Health? A Systematic Review of Korean Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2921.

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