Next Article in Journal
Estimating the Double Burden of Malnutrition among 595,975 Children in 65 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Meta-Analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys
Previous Article in Journal
Reply to Mekary, R.A.; Ding, E.L. Isotemporal Substitution as the Gold Standard Model for Physical Activity Epidemiology: Why It Is the Most Appropriate for Activity Time Research. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 797
Open AccessReview

Income, Self-Rated Health, and Morbidity. A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162884
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
  |  
PDF [531 KB, uploaded 19 August 2019]
  |  

Abstract

If people were asked whether income changes influence self-rated health and morbidity, they would probably answer yes. Indeed, previous studies validated this assumption, but most of them used cross-sectional data and only considered self-rated health as the decisive factor. On the other hand, there are a few studies using longitudinal data, which found a much smaller association between income and self-rated health. In order to give a conclusive overview of the current study situation, this review summarizes and examines studies which use only longitudinal data. In addition to self-rated health, the effects of income on the objective factor of morbidity were also investigated. The review includes a total of 14 papers that use data from seven different countries. It concludes that there is a small, statistically significant, positive impact of increased income on self-rated health, but a negative association between income growth and morbidity. Taking the limitations of confounders, attrition, and selection bias into account, the results may even be insignificant. View Full-Text
Keywords: income; health; morbidity; chronic diseases; chronic conditions income; health; morbidity; chronic diseases; chronic conditions
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Reche, E.; König, H.-H.; Hajek, A. Income, Self-Rated Health, and Morbidity. A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2884.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top