Immunological Factors Associated with Adult Asthma in the Aseer Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia
AbstractBackground: The prevalence of asthma is on the rise in Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the immunological profile of asthma in adults in the Aseer region, in southwestern Saudi Arabia, have not been well studied. Objectives: Our aim was to study the immunological factors associated with sensitization to asthma among adults in the Aseer region. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a nested case control design in a 1:1 ratio was conducted on a sample of adults attending primary health care centers in the Aseer region. The study used a validated Arabic version of the International study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The presence of wheezing in the past 12 months was used as a proxy for bronchial asthma. Matched age and sex controls were selected. Both groups were tested for complete blood count (CBC), total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count including eosinophils, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurement, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), and cytokine levels. Results: The present study included 110 cases and 157 age- and sex-matched controls. Rye wheat was found to be a significant outdoor sensitizing agent ((odds ratio) OR = 5.23, 95% CI: 1.06–25.69). Indoors, house dust mites Dermatophagoides petronyssinus (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.04–3.99) and Dermatophagoides farinae (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.09–5.75) were significant. Higher total IgE (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.10–3.06) and eosinophil levels (OR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.14–7.15) were significantly associated with adult bronchial asthma in Aseer. On the other hand, the role of cytokines was not significant. Conclusions: In the present study, certain environmental agents were found to be important with regards to sensitization to bronchial asthma in adults. Knowledge about these sensitization agents should be disseminated to health providers and treating physicians in order to enhance preventive environmental control measures and asthma management. Asthma-treating physicians in the region should be alerted to the use of targeted biological therapies in selected asthmatics with difficult-to-control courses. View Full-Text
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Al-Ghamdi, B.R.; Koshak, E.A.; Omer, F.M.; Awadalla, N.J.; Mahfouz, A.A.; Ageely, H.M. Immunological Factors Associated with Adult Asthma in the Aseer Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2495.
Al-Ghamdi BR, Koshak EA, Omer FM, Awadalla NJ, Mahfouz AA, Ageely HM. Immunological Factors Associated with Adult Asthma in the Aseer Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(14):2495.Chicago/Turabian Style
Al-Ghamdi, Badr R.; Koshak, Emad A.; Omer, Fakhreldin M.; Awadalla, Nabil J.; Mahfouz, Ahmed A.; Ageely, Hussein M. 2019. "Immunological Factors Associated with Adult Asthma in the Aseer Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 14: 2495.
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