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Open AccessArticle

E-Cigarettes are More Addictive than Traditional Cigarettes—A Study in Highly Educated Young People

1
Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Medykow 18 Str, 40-752 Katowice, Poland
2
Department of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Ziolowa 45/47 Str, 40-635 Katowice, Poland
3
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, P.O. Box 23, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132279
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-Cigarettes: A Global Public Health Perspective)
E-cigarettes are often considered less addictive than traditional cigarettes. This study aimed to assess patterns of e-cigarette use and to compare nicotine dependence among cigarette and e-cigarette users in a group of highly educated young adults. From 3002 healthy adults, a representative group of 30 cigarette smokers, 30 exclusive e-cigarette users, and 30 dual users were recruited. A 25-item questionnaire was used to collect information related to the patterns and attitudes towards the use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and its adapted version for e-cigarettes were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. The nicotine dependence levels measured with FTND were over two times higher among e-cigarette users (mean 3.5) compared to traditional tobacco smokers (mean 1.6; p < 0.001). Similarly, among dual users, nicotine dependence levels were higher when using an e-cigarette (mean 4.7) compared to using traditional cigarettes (mean 3.2; p = 0.03). Habits and behaviors associated with the use of e-cigarettes did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users. The findings suggest that e-cigarettes may have a higher addictive potential than smoked cigarettes among young adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarettes; tobacco; nicotine; addiction; dependence electronic cigarettes; tobacco; nicotine; addiction; dependence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jankowski, M.; Krzystanek, M.; Zejda, J.E.; Majek, P.; Lubanski, J.; Lawson, J.A.; Brozek, G. E-Cigarettes are More Addictive than Traditional Cigarettes—A Study in Highly Educated Young People. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2279. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132279

AMA Style

Jankowski M, Krzystanek M, Zejda JE, Majek P, Lubanski J, Lawson JA, Brozek G. E-Cigarettes are More Addictive than Traditional Cigarettes—A Study in Highly Educated Young People. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(13):2279. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132279

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jankowski, Mateusz; Krzystanek, Marek; Zejda, Jan E.; Majek, Paulina; Lubanski, Jakub; Lawson, Joshua A.; Brozek, Grzegorz. 2019. "E-Cigarettes are More Addictive than Traditional Cigarettes—A Study in Highly Educated Young People" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 13: 2279. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132279

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