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Evidence of Nicotine Dependence in Adolescents Who Use Juul and Similar Pod Devices

1
Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
2
Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122135
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes: Good and Bad Impacts)
Background: The use of high-nicotine content e-cigarettes (so-called pods, such as Juul) among adolescents raises concerns about early onset of nicotine addiction. Methods: In this analysis of adolescents surveyed from April 2017–April 2018, we compare survey responses and urinary cotinine of pod vs. non-pod using past-week e-cigarette users aged 12–21. Results: More pod users categorized themselves as daily users compared to non-pod users (63.0% vs. 11.0%; p = 0.001); more pod than non-pod users had used e-cigarettes within the past day (76.2% vs. 29.6%; p = 0.001). More pod users responded affirmatively to nicotine dependence questions (21.4% vs. 7.1%; p = 0.04). Urinary cotinine levels were compared among those responding positively and negatively to dependence questions: those with positive responses had significantly higher urinary cotinine levels than those responding negatively. Conclusions: Adolescents who used pod products showed more signs of nicotine dependence than non-pod users. Pediatricians should be vigilant in identifying dependence symptoms in their patients who use e-cigarettes, particularly in those using pod devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarette; nicotine; dependence; tobacco e-cigarette; nicotine; dependence; tobacco
MDPI and ACS Style

Boykan, R.; Goniewicz, M.L.; Messina, C.R. Evidence of Nicotine Dependence in Adolescents Who Use Juul and Similar Pod Devices. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2135.

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