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Health-Related Quality of Life in Pediatric Patients with Leukemia in Singapore: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

Department of Psychology, College of Healthcare Sciences, James Cook University, Singapore 387380, Singapore
Department of Pediatrics, National University of Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge CB2 0SP, UK
Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Institute for Health Innovation and Technology (iHealthtech), National University of Singapore, Singapore 117599, Singapore
Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, 100 Dongshan Road, Huaibei 235000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2069;
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Adolescents and Children Health Research)
PDF [294 KB, uploaded 12 June 2019]


There has been a paradigm shift in health service delivery to a more holistic approach, which considers Quality of Life (QoL) and overall functioning. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is a multidimensional construct that encompasses physical functioning as well as psychosocial aspects of emotional and social functioning. This study explored factors related to HRQoL in Asian pediatric patients with leukemia in Singapore. The available variables included: age, treatment duration, household income, gender, ethnicity, religion, diagnosis, and phase of treatment. It is hypothesized that the relationships will be significant. In the current study, there were 60 patients (60% males) with leukemia; their ages ranged from 1 to 21 years (Mean = 8.03, Standard Deviation = 4.55). The hypothesis was partially supported. Age had a significant positive relationship with physical functioning, r(60) = 0.28, p < 0.05, physical health, r(60) = 0.28, p < 0.05, and the total HRQoL score, r(60) = 0.29, p < 0.05. Treatment duration had a positive relationship with school functioning, r(60) = 0.28, p < 0.05. All other correlations were statistically non-significant. The effects of the available psychosocial variables of gender, ethnicity, and religion were examined on scores from the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Ethnicity had a significant effect on social functioning, U = 292.00, p < 0.05, r = 0.3 (medium effect size). Specifically, Chinese (Median = 85.00, n = 33) had significantly higher scores on social functioning than others (Median = 70.00, n = 27). The remaining comparisons were statistically non-significant. The current findings added to QoL research, and provided an impetus for more research in the area of HRQoL for children with leukemia in Singapore. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leukemia; pediatric; health-related quality of life; age Leukemia; pediatric; health-related quality of life; age
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Choo, C.C.; Chew, P.K.; Tan, P.; Choo, J.Q.; Choo, A.M.; Ho, R.C.; Quah, T.C. Health-Related Quality of Life in Pediatric Patients with Leukemia in Singapore: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2069.

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