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Open AccessArticle

Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures on Dental Care for Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 12 Years: A Cross-Sectional Estimate in a Less-Developed Country Setting

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The Academic Area of Dentistry in the Health Sciences Institute, the Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo, Pachuca 42039, Mexico
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The Center for Advanced Studies and Research in Dentistry “Keisaburo Miyata”, Faculty of Dentistry, the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico, Toluca 50000, Mexico
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The Center for Health Systems Research, the National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca 62100, Mexico
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Ministry of Education of Campeche, Sub-secretary of Educational Coordination, Direction of Coordination and Budgetary Management, Campeche 24095, Mexico
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School of Dentistry, the Ixtlahuaca University Centre, Ixtlahuaca 50080, Mexico
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DEPeI School of Dentistry, the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 04360, Mexico
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Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University/Purdue University in Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
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The Indiana University Network Science Institute, Bloomington, IN 47408, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111997
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
Aim: The objective of this study was to estimate the Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures (OOPEs) incurred by households on dental care, as well as to analyze the sociodemographic, economic, and oral health factors associated with such expenditures. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 763 schoolchildren in Mexico. A questionnaire was distributed to parents to determine the variables related to OOPEs on dental care. The amounts were updated in 2017 in Mexican pesos and later converted to 2017 international dollars (purchasing power parities–PPP US $). Multivariate models were created: a linear regression model (which modeled the amount of OOPEs), and a logistic regression model (which modeled the likelihood of incurring OOPEs). Results: The OOPEs on dental care for the 763 schoolchildren were PPP US $53,578, averaging a PPP of US $70.2 ± 123.7 per child. Disbursements for treatment were the principal item within the OOPEs. The factors associated with OOPEs were the child’s age, number of dental visits, previous dental pain, main reason for dental visit, educational level of mother, type of health insurance, household car ownership, and socioeconomic position. Conclusions: The average cost of dental care was PPP US $70.2 ± 123.7. Our study shows that households with higher school-aged children exhibiting the highest report of dental morbidity—as well as those without insurance—face the highest OOPEs. An array of variables were associated with higher expenditures. In general, higher-income households spent more on dental care. However, the present study did not estimate unmet needs across the socioeconomic gradient, and thus, future research is needed to fully ascertain disease burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral health; dental care; health expenditure; out-of-pocket expenditure; Mexico oral health; dental care; health expenditure; out-of-pocket expenditure; Mexico
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Medina-Solís, C.E.; Ávila-Burgos, L.; Márquez-Corona, M.L.; Medina-Solís, J.J.; Lucas-Rincón, S.E.; Borges-Yañez, S.A.; Fernández-Barrera, M.Á.; Pontigo-Loyola, A.P.; Maupomé, G. Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures on Dental Care for Schoolchildren Aged 6 to 12 Years: A Cross-Sectional Estimate in a Less-Developed Country Setting. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1997.

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