- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111981
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. SIPFIS: A WebGIS-Based Analysis Tool
2.2. Prescribed Fire Impact Dataset from the HiRes2 Forecasting System
2.3. Other Datasets and the Data-Fetching Component
- Air quality observations: Ozone and PM2.5 observations from the national air quality monitoring network ; a wget-based c-shell script is used to obtain the near-real-time datasets on a daily basis.
- Fire detections: The locations of satellite fire detections from the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) Fire and Smoke Product ; a wget-based c-shell script is used to obtain near-real-time datasets on a daily basis.
- Permit data: Authorized burn locations and areas from Florida’s open burn authorization records and Georgia’s burn permit records; we received the datasets from Florida and Georgia’s forest service agencies every year.
2.4. Data Archiving Components
2.5. Data Visualization and Analysis Components
3.1. Assisting the Air Quality Forecast and Its Evaluation
3.2. Screening Fire-Related Exceptional Events that could Lead to Exceedances
3.3. Assisting in the Evaluation of Prescribed Burning Operations for Minimal Smoke Exposure
3.4. Quantifying the Health Impacts of Exposure to Smoke from Prescribed Burns
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. The SIPFIS User’s Manual
- Enter a different date or select a day from the calendar, starting from 1 January 2015.
- Select a different pollutant. The pollutant choices are PM2.5 (default) and ozone.
- Zoom in or out on the map, or move to a different region.
- Select a different site on the map by clicking on the circular marker (Figure A1). The names of the sites appear when hovering over their markers on the map, along with the most relevant value of the selected pollutant for that day (the daily average PM2.5 or the daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentration). The circular marker is colored according to the color code for the air quality index that is displayed next to the pollutant name at the top of the map.
- Click on “Click to Open Time Series” on the right-hand-side of the web page to display time series plots for a selected site. There are two time series: (1) daily and (2) hourly, both for a week-long period preceding the selected date. The observed and forecast pollutant concentrations are shown for comparison. Clicking on the markers or lines in the legend makes those observations or forecasts appear or disappear. Hovering over the time series plots displays the concentration values for a particular day. To zoom in to a particular section of the graph, left-click and drag the mouse over that section; double click on the graph to zoom out.
- Check the box for “PM2.5 Forecasts” on the left-hand-side menu to overlay the latest PM2.5 forecast field on the map (Figure A1). Note that there are three different forecasts: (1) Latest, (2) Earlier, and (3) Earliest. We forecast the air quality every day for the next three days. The latest forecast is the one from the previous day’s forecasting cycle. The next forecast is from the forecast issued two days before, and the earliest is three days prior. Note that this particular forecast does not include the potential contributions of prescribed burns.
- Check the box for “Burns” under “Predictions” on the left-hand menu to display forecasted prescribed burns. The blue diamonds mark the locations of forecasted burns. Hovering over the burns displays their acreage. For example, there was a forecasted 200 acre burn to the south of Columbus on 10 March 2016 (Figure A2).
- Check the “Burn Impacts” box to see the forecasted prescribed burn impacts on PM2.5 (or ozone) levels (Figure A3).
- Check the box “Air Quality with Burns” to overlay the map of the predicted air quality with the prescribed burn emissions added (Figure A4).
- To investigate whether there were actual burns in the area, the user can check the “HMS Detections” and “Permits” boxes (Figure A5). HMS data on the website consists of satellite-detected fire locations only (burgundy diamonds); there is no other information associated with these fires. The permits (yellow, orange and red triangles) provide acreage information. This provides additional evidence for the accuracy of the burn and burn impact forecasts.
- Check the box for “SVI-weighted exposure” under “Impacts” on “Social Vulnerability”, on the left-hand-side menu, to show spatial distribution of the SVI-weighted exposures to smoke causing increased PM2.5 levels (Figure A6).
- Check the box for “Asthma EDV”, “Asthma Hospitalization”, “COPD EDV”, or “COPD Hospitalization” under “Impacts” on “Health” on the left-side menu, to show the spatial distributions of the increased relative rates, respectively, for EDV, and the hospitalization of asthma or EDV, and of COPD patients due to the forecasted smoke exposure (Figure A7).
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|Datasets||Source||Available Time Range|
|Air quality forecasts at sites||HiRes2||1 January 2015 to present|
|Burn activity forecasts||HiRes2||1 January 2015 to 30 April 2015; 1 January 2016 to 30 April 2016; 1 January 2017 to present|
|Spatial air quality forecasts without burns||HiRes2||1 January 2015 to 30 April 2015; 1 January 2016 to 30 April 2016; 1 January 2017 to present|
|Spatial air quality forecasts with burns||HiRes2||1 January 2015 to 30 April 2015; 1 January 2016 to 30 April 2016; 1 January 2017 to present|
|Spatial burn impact forecasts||HiRes2||1 January 2015 to 30 April 2015; 1 January 2016 to 30 April 2016; 1 January 2017 to present|
|Air quality observations||AirNow||1 January 2015 to present|
|Hazard Mapping System (HMS ) detections||NOAA||1 January 2015 to present|
|Permits data||Florida and Georgia Forest Service Agencies||1 January 2015 to 31 December 2016|
|Spatial Social Vulnerability Index (SVI)—weighted smoke exposure forecasts||HiRes2||1 January 2019 to present|
|Spatial forecasts of increased relative health rates due to smoke exposure||HiRes2||1 January 2019 to present|
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