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Open AccessArticle

Role of Parenting Style in Children’s Behavioral Problems through the Transition from Preschool to Elementary School According to Gender in Japan

1
School of Nursing, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan
2
Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010021
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting and Offspring Health and Well-Being)
While ineffective discipline can be attributed to authoritarian and permissive parenting styles, little research has examined the role of gender in the association between parenting style and early childhood behavioral problems. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the effects of authoritarian and permissive parenting on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors during the preschool-to-elementary-school transition according to gender in Japan. A sample of 1668 Japanese children (853 boys and 815 girls) were followed longitudinally over one-year intervals, and assessed based on parenting styles (the Parenting Scale), children’s behavioral problems (the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family characteristics. Multivariate analyses revealed that, when analyzed by gender, authoritarian discipline influenced externalizing problems in boys (β = 0.048, p = 0.047) and girls (β = 0.067, p = 0.023), while permissive discipline influenced externalizing problems in boys only (β = 0.049, p = 0.038). The results document the relationship between family processes and the development of disruptive behavior disorders in children. Support for parents employing such child-rearing styles in early childhood may be effective in reducing school maladjustment. View Full-Text
Keywords: authoritarian parenting; permissive parenting; internalizing problem; externalizing problem; gender; preschool children authoritarian parenting; permissive parenting; internalizing problem; externalizing problem; gender; preschool children
MDPI and ACS Style

Hosokawa, R.; Katsura, T. Role of Parenting Style in Children’s Behavioral Problems through the Transition from Preschool to Elementary School According to Gender in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 21.

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