Insufficient fruit intake is observed worldwide despite the generally higher preference for consumption of fruits than vegetables. For children, the determinants of consumption, such as at-home accessibility and parental consumption patterns, may especially influence fruit intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between fruit consumption behaviors and the preferences of mothers and their declared behaviors and preferences of children. The study was conducted in national samples of Polish (n
= 1200) and Romanian (n
= 1157) mothers of children aged 3–10 years (random quota sampling; quotas: age, education and place of residence) by using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Mothers were asked about their general frequency of fruit consumption and their and their children’s most preferred fruits. A 24-h dietary recall of fruit intake was conducted for mothers and children. Significant associations were observed for (1) fruit consumption behaviors of mothers and children, (2) fruit consumption preferences of mothers and their declared preferences of their children, and (3) fruit consumption preferences of mothers and behaviors of their children. The associations were very strong for all fruits, both for Polish and Romanian samples. In order to increase the fruit intake of children, it is necessary to influence the fruit consumption preferences and behaviors of mothers.
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