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Article

Influence of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Used in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and the Concentration of Glutathione in THP-1 Macrophages under Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress

1
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powst. Wlkp. 72, Szczecin 70-111, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Broniewskiego 24, Szczecin 71-460, Poland
3
Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powst. Wlkp. 72, Szczecin 70-111, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010010
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Harmful Effects of Fluoride Exposure)
It has been reported that donepezil and rivastigmine, the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), do not only inhibit AChE but also have antioxidant properties. As oxidative stress is involved in AD pathogenesis, in our study we attempted to examine the influence of donepezil and rivastigmine on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione concentration in macrophages—an important source of reactive oxygen species and crucial for oxidative stress progression. The macrophages were exposed to sodium fluoride induced oxidative stress. The antioxidant enzymes activity and concentration of glutathione were measured spectrophotometrically. The generation of reactive oxygen species was visualized by confocal microscopy. The results of our study showed that donepezil and rivastigmine had a stimulating effect on catalase activity. However, when exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress, the drugs reduced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes (Cat, SOD, GR). These observations suggest that the fluoride-induced oxidative stress may suppress the antioxidant action of AChE inhibitors. Our results may have significance in the clinical practice of treatment of AD and other dementia diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: donepezil; rivastigmine; fluoride; macrophages; antioxidant enzymes; reactive oxygen species donepezil; rivastigmine; fluoride; macrophages; antioxidant enzymes; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goschorska, M.; Gutowska, I.; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I.; Piotrowska, K.; Metryka, E.; Safranow, K.; Chlubek, D. Influence of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Used in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and the Concentration of Glutathione in THP-1 Macrophages under Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010010

AMA Style

Goschorska M, Gutowska I, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Piotrowska K, Metryka E, Safranow K, Chlubek D. Influence of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Used in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and the Concentration of Glutathione in THP-1 Macrophages under Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(1):10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goschorska, Marta, Izabela Gutowska, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Katarzyna Piotrowska, Emilia Metryka, Krzysztof Safranow, and Dariusz Chlubek. 2019. "Influence of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Used in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment on the Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes and the Concentration of Glutathione in THP-1 Macrophages under Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 1: 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010010

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