As a major province of mineral resources in China, Shanxi currently has 6000 mines of various types, and acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major pollutant from the mining industry. Calcareous soil is dominant in western North China (including the Shanxi Province), therefore, clarifying the migration behavior of the main AMD pollutants (H+
, S, Fe, heavy metals) in calcareous soil is essential for remediating AMD-contaminated soil in North China. In this study, the migration behavior of the main pollutants from AMD in calcareous soil was investigated using soil columns containing 20 cm of surficial soil to which different volumes of simulated AMD were added in 20 applications. Filtrate that was discharged from the soil columns and the soil samples from the columns were analyzed. Almost all of the Fe ions (>99%) from the AMD were intercepted in the 0–20 cm depth of the soil. Although >80% of SO42−
was retained, the retention efficiency of the soil for SO42−
was lower than it was for Fe. Cu, as a representative of heavy metals that are contained in AMD, was nearly totally retained by the calcareous soil. However, Cu had a tendency to migrate downward with the gradual acidification of the upper soil. In addition, CaCO3
was transformed into CaSO4
in AMD-contaminated soil. The outcomes of this study are valuable for understanding the pollution of calcareous soil by AMD and can provide key parameters for remediating AMD-contaminated soil.
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