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Open AccessArticle

Effects of the Conceptual Model of Health Literacy as a Risk: A Randomised Controlled Trial in a Clinical Dental Context

1
Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, 9019 Tromsø, Norway
2
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, OsloMet—Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
3
Department of Psychology, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081630
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Literacy in Context—Settings, Media, and Populations)
Numerous conceptual models of health literacy have been proposed in the literature, but very few have been empirically validated in clinical contexts. The aim of this study was to test the effects of the conceptual model of health literacy as a risk in a clinical dental context. A convenience sample of 133 Norwegian-speaking adults was recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 64, 54% women, mean age = 50 years) and a control group (n = 69, 49% women, mean age = 46 years). Clinical measurements were conducted pre-intervention and six months post-intervention. In the intervention group, communication regarding patients’ oral health was tailored to their health literacy levels using recommended communication techniques, whereas the control group received brief information not tailored to health literacy levels. The ANCOVA showed significant between-group effects, finding reduced post-intervention mean gingival (p < 0.000) and mean plaque (p < 0.000) indices in the intervention group when controlling for baseline index scores. The adjusted Cohen’s d indicated large effect sizes between the intervention group and the control group for both the mean gingival index (−0.98) and the mean plaque index (−1.33). In conclusion, the conceptual model of health literacy as a risk had a large effect on important clinical outcomes, such as gingival status and oral hygiene. The model may be regarded as a suitable supplement to patient education in populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: health literacy; patient education; dentistry; oral health; RCT health literacy; patient education; dentistry; oral health; RCT
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Stein, L.; Bergdahl, M.; Pettersen, K.S.; Bergdahl, J. Effects of the Conceptual Model of Health Literacy as a Risk: A Randomised Controlled Trial in a Clinical Dental Context. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1630.

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