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Article

Assessing the Impact of a Risk-Based Intervention on Piped Water Quality in Rural Communities: The Case of Mid-Western Nepal

1
Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
2
Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation Nepal, Jhamshikhel Dhobi Ghat, Lalitpur, GPO Box 688 Kathmandu, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081616
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
Ensuring universal access to safe drinking water is a global challenge, especially in rural areas. This research aimed to assess the effectiveness of a risk-based strategy to improve drinking water safety for five gravity-fed piped schemes in rural communities of the Mid-Western Region of Nepal. The strategy was based on establishing community-led monitoring of the microbial water quality and the sanitary status of the schemes. The interventions examined included field-robust laboratories, centralized data management, targeted infrastructure improvements, household hygiene and filter promotion, and community training. The results indicate a statistically significant improvement in the microbial water quality eight months after intervention implementation, with the share of taps and household stored water containers meeting the international guidelines increasing from 7% to 50% and from 17% to 53%, respectively. At the study endline, all taps had a concentration of <10 CFU Escherichia coli/100 mL. These water quality improvements were driven by scheme-level chlorination, improved hygiene behavior, and the universal uptake of household water treatment. Sanitary inspection tools did not predict microbial water quality and, alone, are not sufficient for decision making. Implementation of this risk-based water safety strategy in remote rural communities can support efforts towards achieving universal water safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: E. coli; monitoring; drinking water; water safety plan; sanitary inspection; gravity-fed piped water scheme; risk management E. coli; monitoring; drinking water; water safety plan; sanitary inspection; gravity-fed piped water scheme; risk management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tosi Robinson, D.; Schertenleib, A.; Kunwar, B.M.; Shrestha, R.; Bhatta, M.; Marks, S.J. Assessing the Impact of a Risk-Based Intervention on Piped Water Quality in Rural Communities: The Case of Mid-Western Nepal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1616. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081616

AMA Style

Tosi Robinson D, Schertenleib A, Kunwar BM, Shrestha R, Bhatta M, Marks SJ. Assessing the Impact of a Risk-Based Intervention on Piped Water Quality in Rural Communities: The Case of Mid-Western Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(8):1616. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081616

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tosi Robinson, Dorian, Ariane Schertenleib, Bal M. Kunwar, Rubika Shrestha, Madan Bhatta, and Sara J. Marks 2018. "Assessing the Impact of a Risk-Based Intervention on Piped Water Quality in Rural Communities: The Case of Mid-Western Nepal" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 8: 1616. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081616

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