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Open AccessArticle

Pathways from Food Consumption Score to Cardiovascular Disease: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study of Indonesian Adults

1
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
2
Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Nutrition Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
5
Research Center of Geriatric Nutrition, College of Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081567
Received: 22 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Background: Available prospective studies of food insecurity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have included obesity and hypertension as the modifiable risk factors. Studies using the physical activity measures are lacking, and where to contribute to counterbalance the risk associated with food insecurity and CVD remains unclear. We aimed to use structural equation modelling (SEM) to explore the complex direct and indirect factor variables influencing cardiovascular disease (CVD) during a seven-year follow-up study. Methods: For 3955 adults who participated in the Indonesian Family Life Surveys in 2007 and 2014, we used SEM to examine the direct and indirect relationships of food consumption score, body shape index, physical activity volume, and blood pressures on CVD. Results: Based on the beta coefficients from a regression analysis, the significant direct effects (p < 0.001) for CVD were food consumption score (FCS), a body shape index (ABSI), vigorous physical activity volume (VPAV), and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Indirect (p = 0.004–p < 0.001) effects for CVD were FCS, ABSI, moderate physical activity volume (MPAV), and VPAV. Food-insecure people are more likely to consume high-calorie diets that lead to obesity, which, together with a lack of vigorous physical activity, leads to hypertension and CVD. Conclusions: Of the multiple factors influencing CVD, the modifiable risk factors were FCS, ABSI, and VPAV. Hence, the recommendations for CVD prevention should include targeting food insecurity, body shape index, and vigorous physical activity besides the measurement of blood pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: food consumption score; body shape index; blood pressures; physical activity; cardiovascular disease; generalised estimating equations; structural equation modelling food consumption score; body shape index; blood pressures; physical activity; cardiovascular disease; generalised estimating equations; structural equation modelling
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Isaura, E.R.; Chen, Y.-C.; Yang, S.-H. Pathways from Food Consumption Score to Cardiovascular Disease: A Seven-Year Follow-Up Study of Indonesian Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1567.

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