Next Article in Journal
Measurement Invariance of the Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV) across Eight Languages
Next Article in Special Issue
Measuring the Impacts of Water Safety Plans in the Asia-Pacific Region
Previous Article in Journal
Changes in the Sociodemographic Factors of Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption in Chinese Adolescents from 2004 to 2011
Previous Article in Special Issue
Heterogeneity in the Relationship between Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water and Cancer: A Systematic Review
Open AccessArticle

Stability of Major Geogenic Cations in Drinking Water—An Issue of Public Health Importance: A Danish Study, 1980–2017

1
National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, 1455 Copenhagen K, Denmark
2
Department of Groundwater and Quaternary Geological Mapping, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
3
National Centre for Register-based Research, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University, 8210 Aarhus V, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061212
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
Concentrations and spatial variations of the four cations Na, K, Mg and Ca are known to some extent for groundwater and to a lesser extent for drinking water. Using Denmark as case, the purpose of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in the major cations in drinking water. The results will contribute to a better exposure estimation in future studies of the association between cations and diseases. Spatial and temporal variations and the association with aquifer types, were analyzed with spatial scan statistics, linear regression and a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression model. About 65,000 water samples of each cation (1980–2017) were included in the study. Results of mean concentrations were 31.4 mg/L, 3.5 mg/L, 12.1 mg/L and 84.5 mg/L for 1980–2017 for Na, K, Mg and Ca, respectively. An expected west-east trend in concentrations were confirmed, mainly explained by variations in aquifer types. The trend in concentration was stable for about 31–45% of the public water supply areas. It is therefore recommended that the exposure estimate in future health related studies not only be based on a single mean value, but that temporal and spatial variations should also be included. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; exposure assessment; sodium; potassium; magnesium; calcium; spatial variations; Denmark drinking water; exposure assessment; sodium; potassium; magnesium; calcium; spatial variations; Denmark
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wodschow, K.; Hansen, B.; Schullehner, J.; Ersbøll, A.K. Stability of Major Geogenic Cations in Drinking Water—An Issue of Public Health Importance: A Danish Study, 1980–2017. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1212.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop