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Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Household Sanitation and Women’s Experience of Menstrual Hygiene: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Kaduna State, Nigeria

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The Water Institute, Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Queen Elizabeth Road, University College Hospital, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
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Center for Research Evaluation Resources and Development, 17 Ajanaku Estate, Ile-Ife 220005, Nigeria
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Department of Statistics, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Rd, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Listed at the end of the report.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050905
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 29 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Global efforts to improve sanitation have emphasized the needs of women and girls. Managing menstruation is one such need, yet there is scarce research capturing current practices. This study investigated the relationships between household sanitation and women’s experience of menstrual management. Secondary analyses were undertaken on data from 1994 women and girls collected through the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 survey in Kaduna, Nigeria. In multivariable models, women had higher odds of using the main household sanitation facility for menstrual management when they had access to a basic (OR = 1.76 95%CI 1.26–2.46) or limited (OR = 1.63 95%CI 1.08–2.48) sanitation facility, compared to an unimproved facility. Women with no household sanitation facility had higher odds of using their sleeping area (OR = 3.56 95%CI 2.50–5.06) or having no facility for menstrual management (OR = 9.86 95%CI 5.76–16.87) than women with an unimproved sanitation facility. Menstrual management locations were associated with ratings of their characteristics. Safely managed or basic sanitation facilities were not rated more favorably than unimproved facilities in privacy (OR = 1.02 95%CI 0.70–1.48), safety (OR = 1.45 95%CI 0.98–2.15), access to a lock (OR = 0.93 95%CI 0.62–1.37), or soap and water (OR = 1.04 95%CI 0.70–1.56). Women using their sleeping area had more favorable perceptions of their environment. Findings suggest household sanitation influences women’s choices for menstrual management, but that existing indicators for improvement are not sensitive to menstrual needs. View Full-Text
Keywords: menstrual hygiene; sanitation; women’s health; menstrual health; cross-sectional survey menstrual hygiene; sanitation; women’s health; menstrual health; cross-sectional survey
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Hennegan, J.; Zimmerman, L.; Shannon, A.K.; Exum, N.G.; OlaOlorun, F.; Omoluabi, E.; Schwab, K.J. The Relationship between Household Sanitation and Women’s Experience of Menstrual Hygiene: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 905.

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