Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter
, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica
and Listeria monocytogenes
may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine) but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs.
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