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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

1
Graduate School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
2
Faculty of Science & Technology, Ryukoku University, Shiga 520-2194, Japan
3
Research Center for Environmental Quality Management, Kyoto University, Shiga 520-0811, Japan
4
Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo NSW 2007, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040799
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Technologies for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF) of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone) could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceramic membrane; membrane fouling; nanofiltration; ozone; water recycling ceramic membrane; membrane fouling; nanofiltration; ozone; water recycling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujioka, T.; Hoang, A.T.; Okuda, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nghiem, L.D. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 799.

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