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School Leadership and Cyberbullying—A Multilevel Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization

1
Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Department of Criminology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040605
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Pathology: Cyber Victimization and Cyber Bullying)
Future orientation can be defined as an individual’s thoughts, beliefs, plans, and hopes for the future. Earlier research has shown adolescents’ future orientation to predict outcomes later in life, which makes it relevant to analyze differences in future orientation among youth. The aim of the present study was to analyze if bullying victimization was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting a pessimistic future orientation among school youth. To be able to distinguish between victims and bully-victims (i.e., students who are both bullies and victims), we also took perpetration into account. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey performed in 2016 among ninth grade students (ages 15–16 years) (n = 5144). Future orientation and involvement in school bullying and in cyberbullying were based on self-reports. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. The results demonstrated that victims and bully-victims of school bullying and of cyberbullying were more likely to report a pessimistic future orientation compared with students not involved in bullying. These associations were shown also when involvement in school bullying and cyberbullying were mutually adjusted. The findings underline the importance of anti-bullying measures that target both school bullying and cyberbullying. View Full-Text
Keywords: future orientation; future expectations; bullying victimization; bullying perpetration; well-being; school future orientation; future expectations; bullying victimization; bullying perpetration; well-being; school
MDPI and ACS Style

Låftman, S.B.; Alm, S.; Sandahl, J.; Modin, B. Future Orientation among Students Exposed to School Bullying and Cyberbullying Victimization. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 605.

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