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Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study

1
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 117609, Singapore
2
Food Science and Technology Programme, Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
3
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Singapore
4
Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
5
Khoo Teck Puat-National University Children’s Medical Institute, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore
6
Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
7
Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
8
Department of Paediatrics, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899, Singapore
9
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Experimental Medicine Building, Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore
10
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit & NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton & University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
11
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
12
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117549, Singapore
13
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Centre for Translational Medicine, Medical Drive #07-02, MD 6 Building, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore 117599, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030488
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 10 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in the First 1000 Days)
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Abstract

Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant diet; complementary feeding; weaning; food sources; energy; macronutrients; Asian infant diet; complementary feeding; weaning; food sources; energy; macronutrients; Asian
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Lim, S.-X.; Toh, J.-Y.; Van Lee, L.; Han, W.-M.; Shek, L.P.; Tan, K.-H.; Yap, F.; Godfrey, K.M.; Chong, Y.-S.; Chong, M.F. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 488.

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