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Open AccessArticle

Are Perceived and Objective Distances to Fresh Food and Physical Activity Resources Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk?

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Centre for Population Health Research, Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
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Wardliparingga Aboriginal Research Unit, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
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Centre for Research & Action in Public Health, Health Research Institute, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
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Population Research and Outcome Studies, Discipline of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
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Department of Medicine, St Vincent’s Hospital, The University ofMelbourne,Melbourne VIC 3065, Australia
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South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020224
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Perceived and objective measures of neighbourhood features have shown limited correspondence. Few studies have examined whether discordance between objective measures and individual perceptions of neighbourhood environments relates to individual health. Individuals with mismatched perceptions may benefit from initiatives to improve understandings of resource availability. This study utilised data from n = 1491 adult participants in a biomedical cohort to evaluate cross-sectional associations between measures of access (perceived, objective, and perceived-objective mismatch) to fruit and vegetable retailers (FVR) and public open space (POS), and clinically-measured metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors: central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and pre-diabetes/diabetes. Access measures included perceived distances from home to the nearest FVR and POS, corresponding objectively-assessed road network distances, and the discordance between perceived and objective distances (overestimated (i.e., mismatched) distances versus matched perceived-objective distances). Individual and neighbourhood measures were spatially joined using a geographic information system. Associations were evaluated using multilevel logistic regression, accounting for individual and area-level covariates. Hypertension was positively associated with perceived distances to FVR (odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.28) and POS (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.34), after accounting for covariates and objective distances. Hypertension was positively associated with overestimating distances to FVR (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.80). Overestimating distances to POS was positively associated with both hypertension (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.83) and dyslipidaemia (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.57). Results provide new evidence for specific associations between perceived and overestimated distances from home to nearby resources and cardiometabolic risk factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: perceptions; geographic information system; neighbourhood; food environment; physical activity environment; cardiometabolic risk factors; Australia perceptions; geographic information system; neighbourhood; food environment; physical activity environment; cardiometabolic risk factors; Australia
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Baldock, K.L.; Paquet, C.; Howard, N.J.; Coffee, N.T.; Taylor, A.W.; Daniel, M. Are Perceived and Objective Distances to Fresh Food and Physical Activity Resources Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 224.

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