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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122757

Airflow as a Possible Transmission Route of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome at an Initial Outbreak Hospital in Korea

1
Department of Architectural Engineering, Sejong University, 209, Seoul 05006, Korea
2
Division of Vectors and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongju 28159, Korea
3
Department of Cancer Control and Population Health, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea
4
Department of Preventive Medicine, Hanyang University Medical College, Seoul 04763, Korea
5
Department of HVAC & Firefighting Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2018 / Revised: 24 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Perspectives in Respiratory Diseases)
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Abstract

In this study, the results of an airflow investigation conducted on 7 June 2015 as part of a series of epidemiologic investigations at Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital, South Korea, were investigated. The study involved 38 individuals who were infected directly and indirectly with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), by a super-spreader patient. Tracer gas experiments conducted on the eighth floor, where the initial patient was hospitalized, confirmed that the tracer gas spread to adjacent patient rooms and rooms across corridors. In particular, the experiment with an external wind direction and speed similar to those during the hospitalization of the initial patient revealed that the air change rate was 17–20 air changes per hour (ACH), with air introduced through the window in the room of the infected patient (room 8104). The tracer gas concentration of room 8110, which was the farthest room, was 7.56% of room 8104, indicating that a high concentration of gas has spread from room 8104 to rooms across the corridor. In contrast, the tracer gas was barely detected in a maternity ward to the south of room 8104, where there was no secondary infected patient. Moreover, MERS is known to spread mainly by droplets through close contact, but long-distance dispersion is probable in certain environments, such as that of a super-spreader patient hospitalized in a room without ventilation, hospitals with a central corridor type, and indoor airflow dispersion due to external wind. View Full-Text
Keywords: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; infection outbreak; airflow analysis; transmission route; ventilation; tracer gas Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; infection outbreak; airflow analysis; transmission route; ventilation; tracer gas
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Sung, M.; Jo, S.; Lee, S.-E.; Ki, M.; Choi, B.Y.; Hong, J. Airflow as a Possible Transmission Route of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome at an Initial Outbreak Hospital in Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2757.

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