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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2635;

Physiological Effects of Viewing Bonsai in Elderly Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, 6-2-1 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882, Japan
Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
Rehabilitation Center, Noda Hospital, 1554-1 Nakazato, Noda, Chiba 270-0237, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 25 November 2018
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The benefits of various nature-derived stimuli that can be used for stress relief and relaxation has recently gained immense attention; however, there are very few studies about their influence on elderly patients. The present study aims to present the effects of viewing bonsai on autonomic nervous activity, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective assessment findings of psychological relaxation in elderly patients undergoing rehabilitation. Fourteen participants aged 64–91 years (mean age ± standard deviation, 78.6 ± 9.6 years) participated in this study. Miniature potted 10-year-old Japanese cypress bonsai trees were used as visual stimuli. Participants viewed the bonsai for 1 min, and the control comprised of no experimental stimulus. Physiological effects on autonomic nervous activity were assessed by measuring the heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse rate. The effects on prefrontal cortex activity were determined using near-infrared spectroscopy, which involved assessment of oxyhemoglobin concentrations in the left and right prefrontal cortices. Subjective evaluations were achieved by the modified semantic differential method. Viewing bonsai resulted in a significant increase in parasympathetic nervous activity, a significant decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, and a significant increase in the perceptions of feeling “comfortable” and “relaxed.” In conclusion, our findings indicated that viewing bonsai induces physiological and psychological relaxation. View Full-Text
Keywords: older adults; nature therapy; heart rate variability; near-infrared spectroscopy; semantic differential method older adults; nature therapy; heart rate variability; near-infrared spectroscopy; semantic differential method

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Song, C.; Ikei, H.; Nara, M.; Takayama, D.; Miyazaki, Y. Physiological Effects of Viewing Bonsai in Elderly Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2635.

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