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Open AccessArticle

Parenting Style and Reactive and Proactive Adolescent Violence: Evidence from Spain

Departamento de Psicología Social, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibáñez, 13., 46010 Valencia, Spain
Departamento de Psicología de la Salud, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Avda. De la Universidad s/n, Edificio Altamira, 03202 Elche (Alicante), Spain
Departamento de Psicología y Sociología, Universidad de Zaragoza, Ciudad Escolar s/n, 44003 Teruel, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2634;
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 24 November 2018
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the parenting styles—authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful—and reactive and proactive school violence among peers. These analyses were also performed by sex and age groups. The sample consisted of 2399 Spanish adolescents (50.2% male), aged between 12 and 18 years, mean (M) = 14.69, standard deviation (SD) = 1.82. A multivariate analisys of variance (MANOVA, 4 × 2 × 2) was applied, considering parenting style, sex, and age group (12–14 and 15–18 years) as independent variables to analyze the possible effects of interaction. Reactive, proactive, and pure violence were the dependent variables. The results showed the main effects of parenting styles, sex, and age, as well as an interaction between sex, age, and parenting styles. The interpretation of the findings suggested that the authoritarian parenting style was related to greater engagement in proactive and reactive violent behaviors. In relation to the effect of the interaction between sex, age, and parenting styles, it was observed that adolescents from indulgent families, of both sexes and in any of the studied age groups, obtained lower scores in proactive violence. The discussion highlights the importance of affection and warmth for well-adjusted children’s behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenting styles; proactive/reactive violence; adolescence parenting styles; proactive/reactive violence; adolescence
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Moreno-Ruiz, D.; Estévez, E.; Jiménez, T.I.; Murgui, S. Parenting Style and Reactive and Proactive Adolescent Violence: Evidence from Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2634.

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