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A Cross-Sectional Investigation of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Biomarkers among Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand

1
Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajvidhi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2
Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, EHT, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
3
Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajvidhi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
4
Buddhachinaraj Phitsanulok, 90 Sithamma traipidok Road, Muang, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
5
Department of Public Health, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Ave, Lowell, MA 01854-2867, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112590
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
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Abstract

Pesticide exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for developing a wide range of adverse health issues. Some examples are metabolic syndromes, including diabetes. This study investigated the relationship between current occupational use of pesticides and metabolic and cardiovascular biomarker levels among organic and conventional farmers in Thailand. In total, 436 recruited farmers were divided into two groups: conventional farmers (n = 214) and organic farmers (n = 222). Participants, free of diabetes, were interviewed and submitted to a physical examination. Serum samples were collected for clinical laboratory analyses, i.e., serum glucose and lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins). Potential risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and heavy exercise were significantly different between the two groups. There were significant differences in terms of the years of pesticide use, pesticide use at home, sources of drinking water, and distance between the farmers’ homes and farms between the groups. After adjusting for confounders, current conventional farmers had significantly higher abnormal body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat percentage (% body fat), triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein values as compared to organic farmers. Conventional farmers had higher risk of many metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors as compared to organic farmers, putting them at higher risk of metabolic diseases in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular biomarker; metabolic biomarkers; pesticide-using farmers; organic farmers cardiovascular biomarker; metabolic biomarkers; pesticide-using farmers; organic farmers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kongtip, P.; Nankongnab, N.; Tipayamongkholgul, M.; Bunngamchairat, A.; Yimsabai, J.; Pataitiemthong, A.; Woskie, S. A Cross-Sectional Investigation of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Biomarkers among Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2590.

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