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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112351

Lead Exposure in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Perspectives and Lessons on Patterns, Injustices, Economics, and Politics

1
Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
2
Division of Health Services Policy and Practice, Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
3
Department of Political Science, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 21 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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PDF [426 KB, uploaded 26 October 2018]

Abstract

Lead exposure is a legacy issue that continues to affect vulnerable population groups globally, but particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICS). We take a multi-disciplinary approach to examine the patterns of lead exposure in these countries, discuss the underlying injustices and socio-political causes, and the economic costs that are associated with exposure. We conclude with some lessons we drew from our discussion of lead across the disciplines and advocate for a number of approaches to solving this ongoing issue. These include (i) biomonitoring that could be integrated into existing health surveys or public health programs targeting young children; (ii) greater civic engagement to push for solutions; and, (iii) environmental control policies that represent a continuum of local, context-specific to broad, national-level, and even global approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; low and middle-income country (LMIC); economic burden; environmental injustice; politics lead; low and middle-income country (LMIC); economic burden; environmental injustice; politics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kordas, K.; Ravenscroft, J.; Cao, Y.; McLean, E.V. Lead Exposure in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Perspectives and Lessons on Patterns, Injustices, Economics, and Politics. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2351.

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