Next Article in Journal
Seroreactivity and Risk Factors Associated with Coxiella burnetii Infection among Cattle Slaughterhouse Workers in South Korea
Next Article in Special Issue
Lead Exposure in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Perspectives and Lessons on Patterns, Injustices, Economics, and Politics
Previous Article in Journal
Running as a Form of Therapy Socio-Psychological Functions of Mass Running Events for Men and Women
Previous Article in Special Issue
Policies to Reduce Lead Exposure: Lessons from Buffalo and Rochester
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102263

Sex-Dependent Impact of Low-Level Lead Exposure during Prenatal Period on Child Psychomotor Functions

1
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland
2
Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, School of Medicine with Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, 41 808 Zabrze, Poland
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Department of Teaching Midwifery, Medical University of Lodz, 90-419 Lodz, Poland
5
Obstetrics, Perinatology and Gynecology Department, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
6
Center for Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, National Institute of Health, I-00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [323 KB, uploaded 16 October 2018]

Abstract

The impact of exposure to lead on child neurodevelopment has been well established. However, sex differences in vulnerability are still not fully explained. We aimed at evaluating the effect of a low-level lead exposure, as measured between 20 to 24 weeks of pregnancy and in cord blood, on developmental scores up to 24 months of age in 402 children from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). Additionally, sex-dependent susceptibility to lead at this very early stage of psychomotor development was assessed. The blood lead levels were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In order to estimate the children’s neurodevelopment, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was applied. The geometric mean (GM) for blood lead level during 20–24 weeks of pregnancy was 0.99 ± 0.15 µg/dL and, in the cord blood, it was 0.96 ± 0.16 µg/dL. There was no statistically significant impact of lead exposure during prenatal period on the girls’ psychomotor abilities. Among the boys, we observed lower scores for cognitive functions, along with increasing cord blood lead levels (β = −2.07; p = 0.04), whereas the results for the language and motor abilities were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Our findings show that fetal exposure to very low lead levels might affect early cognitive domain, with boys being more susceptible than girls. Education on health, higher public awareness, as well as intervention programs, along with relevant regulations, are still needed to reduce risks for the vulnerable population subgroups. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex differences; cord blood lead level; prenatal exposure; neurodevelopment; cognitive; language and motor functions sex differences; cord blood lead level; prenatal exposure; neurodevelopment; cognitive; language and motor functions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Pawlas, N.; Wesolowska, E.; Jankowska, A.; Jagodic, M.; Mazej, D.; Dominowska, J.; Grzesiak, M.; Mirabella, F.; Chiarotti, F.; Calamandrei, G. Sex-Dependent Impact of Low-Level Lead Exposure during Prenatal Period on Child Psychomotor Functions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2263.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top