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Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus in Male Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Hospital of Baza, Department of Dermatology, Andalusian Health Service, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Department of Nursing, University of Granada, 18016 Granada, Spain
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Department of Nursing, University of Huelva, 21007 Huelva, Spain
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Safety and Health Posgrade Program, Espíritu Santo University, Guayaquil 091650, Ecuador
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102210
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections. Although the research focus has been on women, men are also affected. Thus, the aim was to estimate the prevalence of HPV in men and to analyse its risk factors. A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed. The main health science databases were consulted. The search terms were was: “papilloma virus AND (prevalence OR risk factors) AND men”. The final sample of studies was n = 16 and the men sample for the meta-analysis was n = 18,106. The meta-analysis revealed a prevalence of 49% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 35–64%) of any type of human papillomavirus in men and 35% (95% CI: 26–45%) of high-risk human papillomavirus in men. The included studies showed that stable sexual habits, circumcision and condom use are protective factors against HPV. In addition, there is a certain positive association with tobacco use and the early initiation of sexual intercourse. In conclusion, the prevalence of HPV in men is high. The risk factors for HPV infection are sexual promiscuity, early sexual debut, absence of circumcision, lack of condom use and smoking. Further study in this field about the effectiveness of the vaccine and health education should be conducted. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; risk factors; men; papillomavirus; prevalence; health promotion epidemiology; risk factors; men; papillomavirus; prevalence; health promotion
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Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.I.; Gómez-Urquiza, J.L.; Husein-El Ahmed, H.; Albendín-García, L.; Gómez-Salgado, J.; Cañadas-De la Fuente, G.A. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus in Male Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2210.

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