|Akogbe et al., 2013 (Brazil, Mexico and USA) .||n = 3909||Cohort study||Asian/Pacific Islanders had the lowest prevalence of all types of HPV (42.3%) compared to black (66.2%), Mexican (62.3), other (67.3%) and white races (71.5%).|
Asian/Pacific Islanders had the lowest prevalence of oncogenic HPV (18.9%), compared to black (32.2%), whites (31.4%), Mexican (27.5%) and other (27.1%).
|Auvert et al., 2009 (South Africa) .||n = 1264||Clinical trial||Male circumcision protects against high risk-HPV (23.2% prevalence in uncircumcised men against 14% in circumcised men).||2b||B|
|Backes DM et al., 2012 (Kenya) .||n = 2509||Clinical trial||Male circumcision was strongly associated with low probability of flat penile lesions (OR = 0.02) and with higher probability of popular lesions (OR = 3.0).|
Men with flat penile lesions have higher prevalence of the five most common HPV types comparing to men without flat penile lesions.
|Davidson et al., 2014 (South Africa) .||n = 128||Cross-sectional study||More sexual partners increase prevalence of oral and oropharyngeal HPV prevalence.|
No statistically significant differences in HPV prevalence were found regarding age, smoking, alcohol consumption, oral sex, HIV and clinical lesions.
|Giuliano et al., 2009 (Brazil, México and USA) .||n = 998||Cohort study||Statistically significant associations (p < 0.05):|
Between 30–34 years, the probability of suffering oncogenic HPV (OR = 1.99) and any type of HPV (OR = 1.81) is higher.
Reduced risk of any type of HPV infection in Asians/Pacific Islands (OR = 0.18) and in mixed races (OR = 0.74).
Reduced risk of oncogenic HPV in Asians/Pacific Islands (OR = 0.32).
Increased risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 2.18) and of any type of HPV (OR = 2.12) in Brazil.
Higher risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 2.27) and of any type of HPV (OR = 2.63) in divorced/separated.
Lower risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 0.70) in non-smokers.
Increased risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 9.01) and of any type of HPV (OR = 8.15) is related to a greater number of couples.
Lower risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 0.30) and of any type of HPV (OR = 0.44) if they have not had sex in the last 3 months and Increased risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 3.43) and of any type of HPV (OR = 3.05) is related to a greater number of couples in the last 3 months.
Greater risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 1.45) and of any type of HPV (OR = 1.40) if they have had anal sex.
Lower risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 0.47) and of any type of HPV (OR = 0.52) if they have never been diagnosed with sexually transmitted disease.
Increased risk of any type of HPV (OR = 1.57) if they have genital herpes.
Increased risk of oncogenic HPV (OR = 2.27) and for any type of HPV (OR = 2.19) if they have had partners with genital warts.
|Hernández et al., 2008 (USA) .||n = 351||Cohort study||Smoking, sex with men, lifetime number of female sex partners, history of genital warts and circumcision are associated with HPV.|
History of sex with men was inversely associated with HPV infection of the shaft (OR = 0.44).
Lifetime number of female sex partners was positively associated with HPV infection of the shaft and scrotum (OR = 6.93).
Uncircumcised men have higher prevalence rate of HPV of the glans (OR = 1.96) and oncogenic infection (OR = 2.51).
|Ingles et al., 2015 (USA, Brazil, México) .||n = 2754||Cohort study||High-risk type HPV is more prevalent in penile intraepithelial neoplasia (85.7%) and other genital external lesions (21%) than in condiloma (8.2%).||2b||B|
|King et al., 2015 (England) .||n = 511||Cross-sectional study||Higher HPV prevalence rate (92.6%) in HIV-positive men who have sex with men compare with HIV-negative men who have sex with men (71.1%).|
There is a 4.7% increase in the odd of HPV infection per year when modeling age as a continuous variable (18–40 years). When treating age as a categorical variable there are no significant differences in HPV infection.
|Leszek et al., 2013 (Poland) .||n = 820||Cross-sectional study||Higher risk of HVP infection with more than three sexual partners in the last 12 months (OR = 1.44).|
HPV infection is greater in men younger than 34 years (OR = 1.08).
Higher HPV infection in men who do not use condoms (OR = 1.86).
|Lu et al., 2009 (USA) .||n = 377||Cohort study||There is a reduced risk of HPV infection with having a college education or higher (Hazard rate = 0.3) and with older age at first sexual intercourse (Hazard rate = 0.9).|
There is an increased risk of HPV infection in smokers (Hazard rate = 2.4).
|Müller et al., 2016 (South Africa) .||n = 200||Cross-sectional study||Men with HIV have higher prevalence rate of anal and oropharyngeal HPV.|
Men who have sex with men are more likely to have anal HPV than men who have sex with woman (85% vs. 26.8%).
HPV infection is significantly associated with receiving an income, having sex with men only, engaging in group sex in their lifetime, being HIV positive and practicing receptive anal sex.
|Nielson et al., 2007 (USA) .||n = 463||Cross-sectional study||Sociodemographic factors are not related to HPV infection.|
Smoking is associated with HPV (OR = 1.8).
Smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day is associated with HPV (OR = 3.0).
Using condoms at least half time reduce HPV (OR = 0.5).
Sexual factors such as high number of lifetime female sex partners, female partners on the past 3 months, and an increased frequency of intercourse in the past month and 3 months are significantly related to HPV.
Current presence of genital warts (OR = 4.5) and having a female parte with abnormal pap smear (OR = 2.2) are related with HPV.
| Quinn et al., 2012 (Peru) .||n = 105||Cross-sectional study||Being primary receptive as sex role is related with a higher prevalence of HPV, 56%, vs. 4% in insertive.|
Having exclusively men as sexual partners is related with higher HPV prevalence (92%) vs. 17.2% when having men and women.
High risk HPV is related to not having a stable relationship, have sex work as primary income and having a greater number of life partners.
|Repp et al., 2012 (Brazil, Mexico, USA) .||n = 2621||Cross-sectional study||There are statistically different prevalence rates of any HPV for men that always use condom (65.6%) and men do not always use it (71.9%).|
There are statistically different prevalence rates of any oncogenic HPV for men that always use condom (29.6%) and men do not always use it (35.4%).
|Tarnaud et al., 2011 (South Africa) .||n = 3274||Cohort study||Low risk HPV genotypes significantly increase with the number of lifetime sexual partners.|
HIV and Herpes Virus are associated with an increase in low risk HPV genotypes.
Number of low risk HPV genotypes decrease in participants with primary education and those that use condom.
|Vardas et al., 2011 (5 continents) .||n = 3463||Cross-sectional study||Less condom use is associated with an increased risk of HPV (OR = 1.7).|
More than 3 lifetime female sexual partners increase prevalence HPV DNA detection (OR = 4.5).
Africa has the highest risk of HPV (OR = 3.7).