Next Article in Journal
A Novel Sampling Method to Measure Socioeconomic Drivers of Aedes albopictus Distribution in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina
Previous Article in Journal
Fine-Scale Source Apportionment Including Diesel-Related Elemental and Organic Constituents of PM2.5 across Downtown Pittsburgh
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102178

Life Course Effects of Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors on Metabolic Syndrome and 10-Year Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study in Taiwan Adults

1
Department of Applied Statistics and Information Science, Ming Chuan University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
2
Department of Healthcare Information and Management, Ming Chuan University, No. 5, Teh-Ming Rd., Gwei-Shan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 5 October 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [638 KB, uploaded 5 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

The objective of the study was to explore the dynamic effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle behaviors on the risks of metabolic syndrome (MS) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) in life course. The data of 12,825 subjects (6616 males and 6209 females) who underwent repeated examinations and answered repeated questionnaires from 2006 to 2014 at the Major Health Screening Center in Taiwan, was collected and analyzed. The trajectory of trends in the subjects’ SES and lifestyle mobility over time was observed, and the effects of factors with potential impacts on health were tested and analyzed using multiple logistic regression and a generalized estimated equation model. A 10% increase in MS prevalence was observed over the nine-year period. The average Framingham CVD score for people with MS was estimated to be about 1.4% (SD = 1.5%). Except for middle-aged women, marriage was found to raise the risk of CVD, whereas increasing education and work promotions independently reduced CVD risk for the majority of subjects. However, the risk of CVD was raised by half for young men who had a job or lost a job in comparison to continuously unemployed young men. Physical activity was only found to be advantageous for disease prevention in those aged less than 40 years; increased exercise levels were useless for reducing CVD risk among older men. Alcohol drinking and betel chewing caused increased CVD risk in the old and young subjects, respectively, whereas vegetarian diets and vitamin C/E intake were helpful in preventing CVD, even if those habits were ceased in later life. For middle-aged women, getting sufficient sleep reduced CVD risk. We concluded that SES and lifestyle behaviors may have different effects on health over time, among various populations. Accordingly, suggestions can be provided to healthcare workers in designing health promotion courses for people at different life stages. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease; socioeconomic status; lifestyle; life course metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease; socioeconomic status; lifestyle; life course
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, C.-M.; Lin, C.-M. Life Course Effects of Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors on Metabolic Syndrome and 10-Year Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Longitudinal Study in Taiwan Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2178.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top