Next Article in Journal
Impact of Different Estimation Methods on Obesity-Attributable Mortality Levels and Trends: The Case of The Netherlands
Next Article in Special Issue
Spatial Video Health Risk Mapping in Informal Settlements: Correcting GPS Error
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of the Public Health Threats Posed by Vector-Borne Disease in the United Kingdom (UK)
Open AccessArticle

Neighborhood Violence Impacts Disease Control and Surveillance: Case Study of Cali, Colombia from 2014 to 2016

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease, Stanford University, Grant Building, S 374, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5208, USA
2
Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44240, USA
3
Department of Geography, the GIS, Health & Hazards Lab, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44240, USA
4
Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Universidad Icesi, Cali 760031, Colombia
5
Grupo de Investigación en Epidemiología y Servicios, Universidad Libre, Cali 760031, Colombia
6
Caucaseco Scientific Research Center, Cali 760031, Colombia
7
Stanford University School of Medicine Research IRT, 3172 Porter Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5208, USA
8
Secretaría de Salud de Cali, Colombia, Cali 760031, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102144
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
Arboviruses are responsible for a large burden of disease globally and are thus subject to intense epidemiological scrutiny. However, a variable notably absent from most epidemiological analyses has been the impact of violence on arboviral transmission and surveillance. Violence impedes surveillance and delivery of health and preventative services and affects an individual’s health-related behaviors when survival takes priority. Moreover, low and middle-income countries bear a disproportionately high burden of violence and related health outcomes, including vector borne diseases. To better understand the epidemiology of arboviral outbreaks in Cali, Colombia, we georeferenced chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV), and Zika (ZIKV) viral cases from The National System of Surveillance in Public Health between October 2014 and April 2016. We extracted homicide data from the municipal monthly reports and kernel density of homicide distribution from IdeasPaz. Crucially, an overall higher risk of homicide is associated with increased risk of reported DENV, lower rates of acute testing, and higher rates of lab versus clinical discordance. In the context of high violence as a potential barrier to access to preventive health services, a community approach to improve health and peace should be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: arboviral surveillance; neighborhood violence; clinical diagnosis; laboratory specificity; spatial clustering; community health arboviral surveillance; neighborhood violence; clinical diagnosis; laboratory specificity; spatial clustering; community health
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Krystosik, A.R.; Curtis, A.; LaBeaud, A.D.; Dávalos, D.M.; Pacheco, R.; Buritica, P.; Álvarez, Á.A.; Bhatta, M.P.; Rojas Palacios, J.H.; James, M.A. Neighborhood Violence Impacts Disease Control and Surveillance: Case Study of Cali, Colombia from 2014 to 2016. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2144.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop