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Review

Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, Hyperacusis, and Diplacusis in Professional Musicians: A Systematic Review

1
Otolaryngology Department, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
Highland Instruments, Cambridge, MA 02238, USA
3
Santobono-Pousillipon Hospital, Cochlear Implant Center, 80129 Naples, Italy
4
Department of Sense Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
5
Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Science, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
6
Center for Hearing and Deafness, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102120
Received: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 24 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise Pollution and Health)
Professional musicians (PMs) are at high risk of developing hearing loss (HL) and other audiological symptoms such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and diplacusis. The aim of this systematic review is to (A) assess the risk of developing HL and audiological symptoms in PMs and (B) evaluate if different music genres (Pop/Rock Music—PR; Classical Music—CL) expose PMs to different levels of risk of developing such conditions. Forty-one articles including 4618 PMs were included in the study. HL was found in 38.6% PMs; prevalence was significantly higher among PR (63.5%) than CL (32.8%) PMs; HL mainly affected the high frequencies in the 3000-6000 Hz range and was symmetric in 68% PR PMs and in 44.5% CL PMs. Tinnitus was the most common audiological symptom, followed by hyperacusis and diplacusis. Tinnitus was almost equally distributed between PR and CL PMs; diplacusis was more common in CL than in PR PMs, while prevalence of hyperacusis was higher among PR PMs. Our review showed that PR musicians have a higher risk of developing HL compared to CL PMs; exposure to sounds of high frequency and intensity and absence of ear protection may justify these results. Difference in HL symmetry could be explained by the type of instruments used and consequent single-sided exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: hearing loss; noise induced hearing loss; musicians; pop-rock; classic; tinnitus; hyperacusis; diplacusis hearing loss; noise induced hearing loss; musicians; pop-rock; classic; tinnitus; hyperacusis; diplacusis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Stadio, A.; Dipietro, L.; Ricci, G.; Della Volpe, A.; Minni, A.; Greco, A.; De Vincentiis, M.; Ralli, M. Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, Hyperacusis, and Diplacusis in Professional Musicians: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102120

AMA Style

Di Stadio A, Dipietro L, Ricci G, Della Volpe A, Minni A, Greco A, De Vincentiis M, Ralli M. Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, Hyperacusis, and Diplacusis in Professional Musicians: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(10):2120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102120

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Stadio, Arianna, Laura Dipietro, Giampietro Ricci, Antonio Della Volpe, Antonio Minni, Antonio Greco, Marco De Vincentiis, and Massimo Ralli. 2018. "Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, Hyperacusis, and Diplacusis in Professional Musicians: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 10: 2120. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102120

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