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Trauma and Pain in Family-Orientated Societies

Mental Health and Addiction, Co-operative State University Baden-Württemberg, Schramberger Str. 26, 78054 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany
Institute for Psychotherapy and Psychotraumatology, University of Duhok, 42001 Duhok, Irak
Department of Transcultural Psychosomatic, MediClin-Klinik am Vogelsang Donaueschingen, 78166 Donaueschingen, Germany
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 44;
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 26 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refugee, Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health)
PDF [258 KB, uploaded 28 December 2017]


People from family-oriented societies in particular, in addition to having a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suffer from chronic pain and physical complaints. Such people have a different understanding of physical illness and pain and, compared to patients from western societies, have different ideas on healing, even when confronted with the therapist. Hitherto, these factors have not been sufficiently taken into account in modern, multi-module therapy approaches. Trauma can be perceived via pain and physical complaints, whereby the pain is not restricted to one part of the body but is seen as covering the body as a whole. Therefore, in the treatment and above all in the patient-therapist relationship, it is necessary to understand what importance is attached to the perceived pain in relation to the trauma. The afflicted body expresses the trauma in the shape of its further-reaching consequences such as the patient’s social, collective, economic and cultural sensitivity. Therefore, for the effective treatment of trauma and chronic pain, it is necessary to use a multi-modal, interdisciplinary, and culture-sensitive approach when treating patients from traditional cultural backgrounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); pain; pain perception; understanding of illness; culture; family-oriented societies post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); pain; pain perception; understanding of illness; culture; family-oriented societies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kizilhan, J.I. Trauma and Pain in Family-Orientated Societies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 44.

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