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Open AccessArticle

Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Muscle and Liver of Cattle in Xinjiang, China

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090970
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Despite risks associated with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in many regions, little is known about their prevalence in Xinjiang. We determined the presence of 13 PFAAs in 293 beef muscle and liver samples collected in 22 cities covering northern, southern, and eastern Xinjiang using liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, the average values for PFAAs were relatively low compared with previous studies. Liver presented higher mean levels of total PFAAs at 1.632 ng/g, which was over 60-fold higher than in muscle (0.026 ng/g). Among the PFAAs analyzed, medium-chain compounds were dominant, accounting for more than 70% of the total. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was highly prevalent in the liver with the highest mean concentration (0.617 ng/g) and detection frequency (80%). When comparing the three regions of Xinjiang, we found differences in PFAA profiles, with the northern region showing the highest levels. Furthermore, the average daily intake and hazard ratios of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid varied by region, urban/rural environment, gender, ethnicity, and age. The highest risk value of 13 PFAAs was estimated to be 0.837 × 10−3, which is far below 1, indicating that there is no health risk posed by eating beef muscle and liver in Xinjiang. View Full-Text
Keywords: perfluoroalkyl acids; muscle; liver; average daily intake; health risk; Xinjiang perfluoroalkyl acids; muscle; liver; average daily intake; health risk; Xinjiang
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, G.; Lu, J.; Xing, Z.; Li, S.; Liu, Z.; Tong, Y. Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Muscle and Liver of Cattle in Xinjiang, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 970. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090970

AMA Style

Wang G, Lu J, Xing Z, Li S, Liu Z, Tong Y. Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Muscle and Liver of Cattle in Xinjiang, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(9):970. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090970

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Gehui; Lu, Jianjiang; Xing, Zhenni; Li, Shanman; Liu, Zilong; Tong, Yanbin. 2017. "Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Muscle and Liver of Cattle in Xinjiang, China" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14, no. 9: 970. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090970

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