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Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings—Findings from Expert Interviews

Center for Tobacco Studies, Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zubair Kabir
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 781;
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
PDF [267 KB, uploaded 14 July 2017]


Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration’s new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people. Many agreed that more than one warning would be important as e-cigarette science evolves and that research on additional warning themes (e.g., nicotine exposure, harmful constituents) and execution styles (including use of pictorials) was important. Participants were somewhat mixed about the use of reduced-risk messages within e-cigarette warnings, but agreed that research on how to communicate about cigarette/e-cigarette relative risks was needed. Overall, more research is needed on tobacco warnings for non-cigarette products, including on the message content, placement, execution and potential impact on audiences’ product knowledge, risk perceptions and use intentions. This is particularly needed for products such as e-cigarettes which may have harm-reduction potential relative to cigarettes and require unique considerations. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarettes; warnings; risk communication; health communication; risk perceptions e-cigarettes; warnings; risk communication; health communication; risk perceptions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wackowski, O.A.; Hammond, D.; O’Connor, R.J.; Strasser, A.A.; Delnevo, C.D. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings—Findings from Expert Interviews. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 781.

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