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Open AccessArticle

The Evaluation on the Cadmium Net Concentration for Soil Ecosystems

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yupin Lin
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 297;
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Yixing, known as the “City of Ceramics”, is facing a new dilemma: a raw material crisis. Cadmium (Cd) exists in extremely high concentrations in soil due to the considerable input of industrial wastewater into the soil ecosystem. The in situ technique of diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT), the ex situ static equilibrium approach (HAc, EDTA and CaCl2), and the dissolved concentration in soil solution, as well as microwave digestion, were applied to predict the Cd bioavailability of soil, aiming to provide a robust and accurate method for Cd bioavailability evaluation in Yixing. Moreover, the typical local cash crops—paddy and zizania aquatica—were selected for Cd accumulation, aiming to select the ideal plants with tolerance to the soil Cd contamination. The results indicated that the biomasses of the two applied plants were sufficiently sensitive to reflect the stark regional differences of different sampling sites. The zizania aquatica could effectively reduce the total Cd concentration, as indicated by the high accumulation coefficients. However, the fact that the zizania aquatica has extremely high transfer coefficients, and its stem, as the edible part, might accumulate large amounts of Cd, led to the conclusion that zizania aquatica was not an ideal cash crop in Yixing. Furthermore, the labile Cd concentrations which were obtained by the DGT technique and dissolved in the soil solution showed a significant correlation with the Cd concentrations of the biota accumulation. However, the ex situ methods and the microwave digestion-obtained Cd concentrations showed a poor correlation with the accumulated Cd concentration in plant tissue. Correspondingly, the multiple linear regression models were built for fundamental analysis of the performance of different methods available for Cd bioavailability evaluation. The correlation coefficients of DGT obtained by the improved multiple linear regression model have not significantly improved compared to the coefficients obtained by the simple linear regression model. The results revealed that DGT was a robust measurement, which could obtain the labile Cd concentrations independent of the physicochemical features’ variation in the soil ecosystem. Consequently, these findings provide stronger evidence that DGT is an effective and ideal tool for labile Cd evaluation in Yixing. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium bioavailability; soil; Yixing; paddy; zizania aquatica cadmium bioavailability; soil; Yixing; paddy; zizania aquatica
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Yao, Y.; Wang, P.-F.; Wang, C.; Hou, J.; Miao, L.-Z. The Evaluation on the Cadmium Net Concentration for Soil Ecosystems. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 297.

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