Next Article in Journal
Overexpression of SKP2 Inhibits the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects of Esophageal Carcinoma
Next Article in Special Issue
Household Dengue Prevention Interventions, Expenditures, and Barriers to Aedes aegypti Control in Machala, Ecuador
Previous Article in Journal
Participatory Democracy, Community Organizing and the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) Partnership
Previous Article in Special Issue
Current and Future Repellent Technologies: The Potential of Spatial Repellents and Their Place in Mosquito-Borne Disease Control
Open AccessArticle

Mosquitocidal Activity and Mode of Action of the Isoxazoline Fluralaner

Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
USDA-ARS, Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 154;
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mosquito Control Innovations into The 21st Century)
Mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are important vectors of human diseases. Fluralaner, a recently introduced parasiticide, was evaluated as a mosquitocide in this study. On Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae fourth-instar larvae, fluralaner had 24-h LC50 (lethal concentration for 50% mortality) values of 1.8 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively. Following topical application to adult Ae. aegypti, fluralaner toxicity reached a plateau in about 3 days, with 1- and 3-day LD50 (lethal dose for 50% mortality) values of 1.3 ng/mg and 0.26 ng/mg, suggesting a slowly developing toxicity. Fipronil outperformed fluralaner by up to 100-fold in adult topical, glass contact, and feeding assays on Ae. aegypti. These data show that fluralaner does not have exceptional toxicity to mosquitoes in typical exposure paradigms. In electrophysiological recordings on Drosophila melanogaster larval central nervous system, the effectiveness of fluralaner for restoring nerve firing after gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) treatment, a measure of GABA antagonism, was similar in susceptible Oregon-R and cyclodiene-resistant rdl-1675 strains, with EC50 (half maximal effective concentration) values of 0.34 µM and 0.29 µM. Although this finding suggests low cross resistance in the presence of rdl, the moderate potency, low contact activity, and slow action of fluralaner argue against its use as an adult mosquitocide for vector control. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Drosophila melanogaster; fipronil; GABA receptor Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Drosophila melanogaster; fipronil; GABA receptor
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, S.; Tsikolia, M.; Bernier, U.R.; Bloomquist, J.R. Mosquitocidal Activity and Mode of Action of the Isoxazoline Fluralaner. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 154.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop