Next Article in Journal
Factors Associated with Male Partner Involvement in Programs for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural South Africa
Next Article in Special Issue
Forecasting the Water Demand in Chongqing, China Using a Grey Prediction Model and Recommendations for the Sustainable Development of Urban Water Consumption
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Research on Storm-Tide Disaster Losses in China Using a New Grey Relational Analysis Model with the Dispersion of Panel Data
Open AccessArticle

Pricing, Carbon Emission Reduction, Low-Carbon Promotion and Returning Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Vertical and Horizontal Cooperation

by Hui Li 1,*, Chuanxu Wang 1,*, Meng Shang 2 and Wei Ou 3
1
School of Economics and Management, Shanghai Maritime University, No. 1550, Haigang Avenue, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201306, China
2
School of Flight, Anyang Institute of Technology, No. 1 Huanghe Avenue W., Anyang City 455000, China
3
School of Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Asahidai 1-1, Nomi City, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111332
Received: 16 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Models in Green Growth and Sustainable Development)
In this paper, we examine the influences of vertical and horizontal cooperation models on the optimal decisions and performance of a low-carbon closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with a manufacturer and two retailers, and study optimal operation in the competitive pricing, competitive the low-carbon promotion, the carbon emission reduction, the used-products collection and the profits. We consider the completely decentralized model, M-R vertical cooperation model, R-R horizontal cooperation model, M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model and completely centralized model, and also identify the optimal decision results and profits. It can be observed from a systematic comparison and numerical analysis that the completely centralized model is best in all optimal decision results among all models. In semi-cooperation, the M-R vertical cooperation model is positive, the R-R horizontal cooperation model is passive, and the positivity of the M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model decreases with competitive intensity increasing in the used-products returning, carbon emissions reduction level, low-carbon promotion effort and the profits of the manufacturer and the entire supply chain. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; low-carbon promotion; cooperation; closed-loop supply chain carbon emissions reduction; low-carbon promotion; cooperation; closed-loop supply chain
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Wang, C.; Shang, M.; Ou, W. Pricing, Carbon Emission Reduction, Low-Carbon Promotion and Returning Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Vertical and Horizontal Cooperation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1332.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop