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Open AccessArticle

Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

by Zhiqing Zhao 1,2,†, Faying Lin 3,†, Bennett Wang 2, Yihai Cao 4, Xu Hou 2,* and Yangang Wang 2,*
1
Emergency Department, Maternal and Children Health’s Hospital of Tangshan, Tangshan 063000, China
2
Department of Endocrinology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China
3
Department of Medical Services, The Eighth Hospital of PLA, Shigatse 857000, China
4
Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm 17177, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14010003
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Research indicates that higher levels of traffic-related pollution exposure increase the risk of diabetes, but the association between road proximity and diabetes risk remains unclear. To assess and quantify the association between residential proximity to major roadways and type 2 diabetes, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for eligible studies. Using a random-effects meta-analysis, the summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Bayesian meta-analysis was also performed. Eight studies (6 cohort and 2 cross-sectional) with 158,576 participants were finally included. The summary unadjusted RR for type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.44, p = 0.001, I2 = 48.1%). The summary adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways was 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03–1.22, p = 0.01, I2 = 17.9%). After excluding two cross-sectional studies, the summary results suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could increase type 2 diabetes risk (Adjusted RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.27, p = 0.025, I2 = 36.6%). Bayesian meta-analysis showed that the unadjusted RR and adjusted RR of type 2 diabetes associated with residential proximity to major roadways were 1.22 (95% credibility interval: 1.06–1.55) and 1.13 (95% credibility interval: 1.01–1.31), respectively. The meta-analysis suggested that residential proximity to major roadways could significantly increase risk of type 2 diabetes, and it is an independent risk factor of type 2 diabetes. More well-designed studies are needed to further strengthen the evidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; residential proximity to major roadways; meta-analysis type 2 diabetes; residential proximity to major roadways; meta-analysis
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Zhao, Z.; Lin, F.; Wang, B.; Cao, Y.; Hou, X.; Wang, Y. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 3.

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