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Open AccessArticle

Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

1
Jiangxi Key Laboratory for Mass Spectrometry and Instrumentation, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
2
Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Warish Ahmed and David J. Beale
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080814
Received: 8 May 2016 / Revised: 24 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 August 2016 / Published: 11 August 2016
Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L−1 (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L−1 in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10–1000 μg·L−1. Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L−1 gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: extractive electrospray ionization; rapid detection; malachite green; water; mass spectrometry extractive electrospray ionization; rapid detection; malachite green; water; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fang, X.; Yang, S.; Chingin, K.; Zhu, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, Z.; Zhao, Z. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 814. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080814

AMA Style

Fang X, Yang S, Chingin K, Zhu L, Zhang X, Zhou Z, Zhao Z. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(8):814. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080814

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng. 2016. "Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 8: 814. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080814

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