Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus
2. Climate Change-Induced Migration
2.1. Estimating the Number of Environmental Migrants
2.2. The Environment as a Contextual Determinant of Migration
2.3. Type of Migration
2.4. Migration as Adaptation
2.5. Evidence of Climate Extremes and Resource Scarcity Impacting Migration
3. Linking Migration to Conflict
3.1. Arguments for Migration as a Catalyst of Conflict
3.2. Complexities of Viewing Migration as a Catalyst of Conflict
4. Considerations for Future Research Directions
4.1. What Are the Local Climate Risks?
4.2. What Is the Potential for Resource Scarcity?
4.3. Is Migration Economically Viable?
4.4. What is the Status of Local Stabilizing or Destabilizing Factors?
4.5. Is There a Local History of Conflict?
Conflicts of Interest
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|Type of Climate Event||Region/Country||Time Period *||Major Impacts on Migration||Presence of Conflict||Sources|
|Drought/soil degradation||Kenya||2004 & 2007||Increase in temporary labor migration with decreasing soil quality||n/a||Gray, 2011 |
|Heat stress||Pakistan||1991–2012 **||Increase in long-term migration of men||n/a||Mueller et al., 2014 |
|Forest fires||United States||2010||Increased intention to migrate||n/a||Nawrotzki et al., 2014 |
|Flooding/Cyclone||Bangladesh||2009||Increase in male rural-urban migration||Moderate evidence of contributing to intra-familial conflict||Mallick & Vogt, 2012 |
|Flooding||Pakistan||2011–2012||Increase in rural-urban migration||Strong evidence of violent conflict over political power between migrants and non-migrants||Bhattacharyya, & Werz, 2012 |
|Drought||Syria||2006–2014||Increase in rural-urban migration||Moderate evidence of contributing to violent conflict||Gleick, 2014 |
|Drought/water scarcity||Western Sahel||2005–present||Increase in labor-related migration of pastoralists||Strong evidence of contributing to clashes between pastoralists and farmers over resources||UNEP, 2011 ;|
Nyong, 2011 
|Droughts||Peru & Bolivia||1996–present **||Increase in labor-related migration of farmers due to increasingly devastating droughts||Strong evidence of contributing to conflict between farmers over resources and ethnic conflict between farmers and indigenous migrants||Hoffman & Grigera, 2013 ;|
Carrol & Schipani, 2011 
|Desertification||Nigeria||~1993–2013 **||Increase in labor-related migration of farmers due to increasing desertification||Strong evidence of ethnic conflict between farmers over rangeland||Folami, 2013 ;|
Werz & Conley, 2012 
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Burrows, K.; Kinney, P.L. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040443
Burrows K, Kinney PL. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(4):443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040443Chicago/Turabian Style
Burrows, Kate, and Patrick L. Kinney. 2016. "Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 4: 443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13040443