Next Article in Journal
Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants’ Comfort in European “Modern” Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study
Next Article in Special Issue
A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Burden of Heat-Related Illness and Death within the Florida Population
Previous Article in Journal
The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and an Analysis of Related Lifestyle Factors in Beijing Communities
Previous Article in Special Issue
Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus

Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10024, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jan C. Semenza
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(4), 443;
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health)
PDF [1233 KB, uploaded 22 April 2016]


The potential link between climate change, migration, and conflict has been widely discussed and is increasingly viewed by policy makers as a security issue. However, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the role that climate variability and change play among the many drivers of migration and conflict. The overall objective of this paper is to explore the potential pathways linking climate change, migration and increased risk of conflict. We review the existing literature surrounding this issue and break the problem into two components: the links between climate change and migration, and those between migration and conflict. We found a large range of views regarding the importance of climate change as a driver for increasing rates of migration and subsequently of conflict. We argue that future research should focus not only on the climate-migration-conflict pathway but also work to understand the other pathways by which climate variability and change might exacerbate conflict. We conclude by proposing five questions to help guide future research on the link between climate change, migration, and conflict. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; migration; conflict climate change; migration; conflict

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Burrows, K.; Kinney, P.L. Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 443.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top