English Stop-Smoking Services: One-Year Outcomes
2. Materials and Methods
2.2.1. Design Variables
2.2.2. Socio-Demographic Variables
2.2.3. Health and Wellbeing
2.2.4. Dependence on Tobacco, Support and Determination to Quit
2.2.6. Potential Confounders Excluded
3.1. Smoking Status
3.2. Fifty-Two-Week Quit Rates and Multivariable Odds Ratios for Predicting Quitting for Various Client Groups
3.2.1. Sample Design Characteristics
3.2.2. Sociodemographic Characteristics
3.2.3. Smoking and Quit Attempt Characteristics
Conflicts of Interest
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|Nottingham/North Cumbria (n = 2069) 2002 N (%)||Glasgow (n = 1785) 2007 N (%)||ELONS 1 (n = 3057) 2012/2013 N (%)|
|52 weeks follow-up (Russell Standard):|
|1 CO validated quit (0–5 cigarettes since quit date)||303 (14.6)||64 (3.6)||285 (9.3)|
|2 Self report not CO validated||65 (3.1)||63 (3.5)||165 (5.4)|
|3 Self report refuted by CO validation||8 (0.4)||1 (0.1)||25 (0.8)|
|4 Non-quitters at 52 weeks||525 (25.4)||264 (14.8)||578 (18.8)|
|5 Non-quitters at 4 weeks||392 (18.9)||259 (14.5)||681 (22.1)|
|6 Lost to follow-up at 52 weeks||367 (17.7)||179 (10.0)||689 (22.4)|
|7 Lost to follow-up at 4 weeks||409 (19.8)||955 (53.5)||653 (21.2)|
|Total 52-week self-report (excluding refuted by CO test)||368 (17.7)||127 (7.1)||450 (14.7)|
|Alternative self-report quit rates at 52 weeks 2|
|Point prevalence 3||NA||131 (7.3)||558 (18.3)|
|Continuous abstinence (not a puff)||377 (18.2)||108 (6.1)||390 (12.8)|
|Alternative CO validated quit rates at 52 weeks|
|Point prevalence 3||NA||NA||348 (11.4)|
|Continuous abstinence (not a puff)||303 (14.6)||62 (3.5)||260 (8.5)|
|Total eligible for follow-up at 52 weeks (all 4 weeks self-report)||1272 (61.5)||568 (31.8)||1735 (56.7)|
|Total successfully followed up at 52 weeks||901 (43.5)||392 (22.0)||1051 (34.4)|
|Total eligible for CO validation at Russell standard||376 (18.2)||128 (7.2)||475 (15.5)|
|Total given CO test||311 (15.0)||65 (3.6)||310 (10.1)|
|CO validated quit rate of those successfully followed up||34.5%||16.1%||27.1%|
|N||%||Quit Rate||Weighted Quit Rate (95% CI)||Multivariable Logistic Regression OR (95%CI)|
|Behavioural support (truncated)|
|group specialist||652||21.3||11.8||12.1 (10.5–13.8)||3.4 (1.7–6.7)|
|drop in specialist||887||29.0||7.9||7.6 (5.1–11.0)||1.7 (0.9–3.5)|
|one-to-one specialist||1131||37.0||10.4||10.2 (7.6–13.7)||2.3 (1.2–4.6)|
|general practice or pharmacy service||366||12.0||4.9||5.1 (2.8–9.3)||1.0|
|other or unknown||21||0.7||9.5||Not available||2.3 (0.5–11.6)|
|2||741||24.2||10.4||8.1 (6.4–10.3)||1.1 (0.6–2.1)|
|3||88||2.9||11.4||11.0 (5.7–20.2)||1.3 (0.5–3.3)|
|4||396||13.0||10.9||9.3 (6.3–13.5)||1.2 (0.6–2.3)|
|5||74||2.4||5.4||4.2 (1.3–12.6)||0.7 (0.2–2.4)|
|6||690||22.6||10.0||7.8 (5.0–11.9)||0.7 (0.4–1.2)|
|7||146||4.8||6.2||6.4 (3.3–12.2)||0.9 (0.3–2.3)|
|8||555||18.2||8.3||8.0 (5.9–10.7)||1.1 (0.5–2.1)|
|9||94||3.1||6.4||11.9 (4.2–29.5)||0.9 (0.3–2.6)|
|other months||767||25.1||9.5||7.0 (5.2–9.4)||1.2 (0.8–1.7)|
|Summer—July, Aug||970||31.7||8.1||6.3 (4.4–8.9)||1.0|
|back to school—Sept, Oct||1128||36.9||9.7||8.7 (6.4–11.7)||1.2 (0.9–1.6)|
|New Year—Jan, Feb||192||6.3||12.5||13.1 (5.1–29.6)||1.7 (1.0–2.9)|
|Age (weighted mean (years))||not quit 43.3 (42.5–44.1) |
quit 46.8 (44.4–49.2)
|male||1347||44.1||10.4||8.4 (6.8–10.2)||1.2 (0.9–1.5)|
|white British||2866||93.8||9.4||7.4 (6.1–9.0)||not entered|
|other white||69||2.3||10.1||11.5 (4.5–26.0)|
|Asian (including mixed white and Asian)||64||2.1||3.1||3.6 (1.3–9.5)|
|Other and unknown||58||1.9||12.1||21.6 (7.0–50.1)|
|0–1 indicators of low ses||1123||36.7||13.0||10.3 (8.4–12.7)||1.4 (1.1–1.9)|
|2–5 indicators of low ses||1934||63.3||7.2||6.2 (5.0–7.7)||1.0|
|WHO_5 Wellbeing (weighted mean)||not quit 52.7 (51.4–53.9) |
quit 59.3 (56.5–62.1)
|Medication in week 1|
|varenicline not recorded||1661||54.3||6.7||6.2 (4.9–7.7)||1.0|
|took varenicline||1396||45.7||12.4||10.0 (7.2–13.8)||1.7 (1.3–2.3)|
|other||1681||55.0||11.4||9.8 (7.7–12.4)||1.5 (1.1–1.9)|
|highly dependent||1376||45.0||6.8||4.9 (2.9–8.2)||1.0|
|Determination to quit||not entered|
|very/extremely determined||2729||89.3||9.5||8.0 (6.7–9.5)|
|Support from spouse partner|
|support from spouse/partner||1550||50.7||11.3||9.2 (7.4–11.3)||1.4 (1.0–1.8)|
|Friends and family|
|half or fewer smoke||2286||74.8||10.9||9.1 (7.5–10.9)||2.0 (1.4–2.9)|
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Bauld, L.; Hiscock, R.; Dobbie, F.; Aveyard, P.; Coleman, T.; Leonardi-Bee, J.; McRobbie, H.; McEwen, A. English Stop-Smoking Services: One-Year Outcomes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121175
Bauld L, Hiscock R, Dobbie F, Aveyard P, Coleman T, Leonardi-Bee J, McRobbie H, McEwen A. English Stop-Smoking Services: One-Year Outcomes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(12):1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121175Chicago/Turabian Style
Bauld, Linda, Rosemary Hiscock, Fiona Dobbie, Paul Aveyard, Tim Coleman, Jo Leonardi-Bee, Hayden McRobbie, and Andy McEwen. 2016. "English Stop-Smoking Services: One-Year Outcomes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 12: 1175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121175