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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1172;

Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults

United States Environmental Protection Agency, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emmanuelle Vulliett
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Micro-Pollutants and Human Exposure)
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Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a further analysis of published study data, we quantified urinary 3-PBA levels of 50 adults over a single, 24-h sampling period and examined the associations between the biomarker measurements and selected non-chemical stressors (demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors). A convenience sample of 50 adults was recruited in North Carolina in 2009–2011. Participants collected individual urine voids (up to 11) and filled out activity, food, and pesticide use diaries over a 24-h sampling period. Urine voids (n = 326) were analyzed for 3-PBA concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 3-PBA was detected in 98% of the 24-h composited urine samples. The geometric mean urinary 3-PBA level was 1.68 ng/mL in adults. Time spent outside (p = 0.0006) was a highly significant predictor of natural log-transformed (ln) urinary 3-PBA levels, while consumption of coffee (p = 0.007) and breads (p = 0.019) and ln creatinine levels (p = 0.037) were significant predictors of urinary 3-PBA levels. In conclusion, we identified specific factors that substantially increased adult exposures to pyrethroids in their everyday environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: adults; insecticides; exposure; determinants; urine; biomarkers adults; insecticides; exposure; determinants; urine; biomarkers

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Morgan, M.; Jones, P.; Sobus, J.; Boyd Barr, D. Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1172.

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