Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders
AbstractFish is a major source of nutrients critical for brain development during early life. The importance of childhood fish consumption is supported by several studies reporting associations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation with better behavior and school performance. However, fish may have a different effect than n-3 PUFA alone due to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, a frequent contaminant. We investigated associations of childhood fish consumption with learning and behavioral disorders in birth cohort study of the neurotoxic effects of early life exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Childhood (age 7–12 years) fish consumption and learning and behavioral problems were reported in self-administered questionnaires (age 23–41 at questionnaire completion). Fish consumption was not meaningfully associated with repeating a grade, tutoring, attending summer school, special class placement, or low educational attainment. However, participants who ate fish several times a week had an elevated odds of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (odds ratio: 5.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–18) compared to participants who did not eat fish. While these findings generally support the safety of the observed level of fish consumption, the absence of a beneficial effect may be attributed to insufficient fish intake or the choice of relatively low n-3 PUFA fish. View Full-Text
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Carwile, J.L.; Butler, L.J.; Janulewicz, P.A.; Winter, M.R.; Aschengrau, A. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1069.
Carwile JL, Butler LJ, Janulewicz PA, Winter MR, Aschengrau A. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(11):1069.Chicago/Turabian Style
Carwile, Jenny L.; Butler, Lindsey J.; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; Winter, Michael R.; Aschengrau, Ann. 2016. "Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 11: 1069.
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