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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 957;

Relationship between Pesticide Metabolites, Cytokine Patterns, and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Rural Women Workers

Division of Occupational Medicine and Centre for Environmental and Occupational Health Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Room 4.47, Fourth Level, Falmouth Building, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
Department of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, School of Pathology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PYR) pesticides with serum cytokine patterns and asthma-related outcomes among rural women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among rural women (n = 211), including those working and living on farms and nearby town dwellers. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolite concentrations of OP and PYR pesticides. Health outcome assessment was ascertained through the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and serum cytokines associated with asthma. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 11%, adult-onset asthma 9%, and current asthma 6%. In this population, the proportion of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) detectable in subjects was between 18% and 40%, while the proportion of non-Th2 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon gamma) was between 35% and 71%. Most Th2 and non-Th2 cytokines were positively associated with either OP or PYR metabolites. Non-Th2 cytokines showed much stronger associations with OP metabolites (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.54–11.65) than Th2 cytokines (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.83–3.46). This study suggests that exposure to most OP and some PYR pesticides may be associated with asthma-related cytokines, with non-Th2 cytokines demonstrating consistently stronger relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: asthma; airway inflammation; cytokines; pesticide metabolites asthma; airway inflammation; cytokines; pesticide metabolites
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mwanga, H.H.; Dalvie, M.A.; Singh, T.S.; Channa, K.; Jeebhay, M.F. Relationship between Pesticide Metabolites, Cytokine Patterns, and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Rural Women Workers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 957.

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