: This review examines the use of exenatide twice daily in managing changes in markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Background
: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive metabolic disorder, which results from defects in insulin secretion and/or insulin action leading to chronic hyperglycaemia and associated cardiovascular complications. Despite the use of diet, exercise, oral antihyperglycaemic agents and insulin, the progressive nature of the condition means that the levels of the preventive and treatment measures would have to be increased and/or new therapies have to be developed in order to address the long term impact of type 2 diabetes. The advent of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist provides a useful basis for managing type 2 diabetes and related cardiovascular complications without the side effects of regular diabetes therapies. However, exenatide twice daily is often used in combination with other therapies, although the mechanism of exenatide in managing diabetes and and associated cardiovascular risks and complications remain complex and still evolving. Method
: A range of databases including EBSCOhost online research database were used to access articles based on PICO (Population, Interventions, Comparative Interventions, Outcomes) framework and Boolean operators. Results: Eleven randomised controlled studies which met the inclusion criteria were selected for this review. Nine of the eleven studies showed significant decrease in body weight among participants in the exenatide group compared with placebo or control group while the other two studies did not report statistically significant differences in body weight. In adition, all the studies showed statistically significant decrease in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the exenatide group compared to controls except in one study. In the present review, the seven studies, which looked at the effect of exenatide twice daily on lipid profile, did not find any significant difference between the exenatide group and the control group except for High density lipoprotein-cholesterol in two of the studies. However, statistically significant decrease was observed between exenatide group and controls with respect to blood pressure (systolic and/or diastolic) in these studies. Discussion
: It would appear that exenatide is more effective in reducing body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes when used in combination with metformin than when used alone or in combination with thiazolidinedione. The findings of this review would suggest that exenatide twice daily may be useful in managing cardiovascular risks and complications by reducing body weight, HbA1c and blood pressure.
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